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104 terms

Organization of Living Systems

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Active Transport
Process requiring energy for the movement of particles across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
Alternation Of Generations
In the life cycle of many plants, this is when each generation has two separate bodies, the haploid and the diploid
Anaphase
This is the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes separate to the opposite ends of the cell.
Angiosperm
Means covered seed; these are flowering plants that bear seeds within a layer of tissue or fruit
Animal Cell
This kind of cell does not have a large central vacuole.
Asexual
This is a type of reproduction where one organism divides into two and there is no excahenge of genetic information.
Asexual Reproduction
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
ATP
This is the main energy storage and transfer molecule in the cell.
Binary Fission
This is a form of asexual reproduction in which one cell or organism is split in two; this is a natural form of cloning and provides
no genetic variety.
Brain
This is an organ of the central nervous system, which has
three distinct parts that control and coordinate the activities of the body.
The cerebrum controls thoughts, voluntary actions, and the sensations related to the five senses. The cerebellum helps with balance and coordination. The stem controls vital and involuntary processes like breathing and your heart beating.
Budding
This is a type of asexual reproduction where an offspring grows out of the body of the parent
Cardiac Muscle
This is a type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium.
Cell
This is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the "building blocks of life."
Cell Cycle
The series of events in a eukaryotic cell that involve growth, replication and division
Cell Membrane
A thin, flexible, semipermeable barrier around the cell which regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Cell Wall
This structure provides support and protection for plant cells
Central Vacuole
These are large compartments within some eukaryotic cells that capture and store food or toxic materials maintain turgor pressure, and dispose of unwanted substances from the cell
Centrioles
These are barrel shaped microtubules in most animal cells, that organize the spindles during cell division
Chlorophyll
This is a green pigment in chloroplasts that traps light energy from the sun
Chloroplast
This is a plastid with chlorophyll in plants that photosynthesize
Chromosome
This is the structure in the cell nucleus that houses a cell's genetic information
Cilia
These are short hair-like organelles on the surface of a eukaryotic cell used for locomotion or sensory functions.
Circulatory
This system transports blood through the body and heart. It transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; removes cell wastes; and helps to regulate body temperature. It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
Cleavage
This is when minerals break on specific planes
Concentration Gradient
This is the unequal distribution of ions across a cell membrane
Crossing Over
This is the process in which two chromosomes exchange DNA during prophase of meiosis
Cytokinesis
This is the last part of the cell cycle, and it is where the cytoplasm is divides amongst the two new daughter cells
Cytoplasm
This is a homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells and serves as the broth of the cellular soup
Cytoskeleton
This is a scaffolding of protein fibers that help a cell keep its shape, and assist cell division and cell movement
Differentiated Cells
These are cells which have become modified and specialized within an organism
Diffusion
The process when molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Digestive System
This system prepares food for cellular utilization by breaking down food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates wastes. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas, and rectum.
Diploid
This is an organism or cell with two sets of chromosomes
DNA
This holds an organisms hereditary information
Endocrine System
This system controls growth, development and metabolism and maintains homeostasis by contolling glands and hormones. It consists of the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries (in females) and testes (in males).
Endocytosis
This is the process where cells engulf material from outside their cell membranes
Eukaryote
These are cells where the genetic material is contained in membrane-bound nuclei
Excretory System
This system eliminates waste products from the body. It consists of the skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Exocytosis
This is the transport of material out of a cell by means of a sac or vesicle that first engulfs the material and then is extruded through an opening in the cell membrane.
Experiment
Scientific procedure followed to obtain results for analysis. This is also a means to test a hypothesis
Fertilization
The process of one gamete (sex cell) joining another.
Flagella
These are singular, relatively long, whip-like organelles that many unicellular organisms use for motion
Flower
This is the reproductive part of the plant and it produces seeds and develops the fruit
G 1
This is the period during the cell cycle when the cell is neither preparing for cell division nor dividing; it is just being a cell and doing what it usually does during normal cellular activities.
G 2
This the period during the cell cycle between the DNA replication and mitosis. Chromatin condense into chromosomes and the chromosomes get ready for segregation
Gamete
This is a haploid cell with half the reproductive information from the parent
Golgi Body
This organelle serves to process and package lipids and proteins in the cell.
Guard Cells
This is a pair of leaf epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of stomata
Gymnosperms
Means "naked seeds": Nonflowering vascular plants whose seeds are produced on the scales of cones.
Haploid
This is an organism with one set of chromosomes
Haploid Cell
This is a cell that has one copy of its genetic information in each cell
Heterotrophic Cell
A cell that can not produce its own energy, the energy must be consumed.
Immune and Lymphatic Systems
These systems help protect the body from disease. They collect fluid lost from blood vessels and return it to the circulatory system. They consist of white blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels.
Leaf
This is the part of the plant which is above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. It is typically flat, thin and contains chlorophyll.
Leucoplast
This is a type of plastid found in plant cells. It lacks pigments and is used to store starch
Lysosome
These are organelles that digest macromolecules
Meiosis
This is a process where a parent cell divides into four sex cells with half the chromosomes
Metaphase
This is the stage of mitosis where chromosomes align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.
Microscope
Equipment used to magnify and observe small objectsEquipment used to magnify and observe small objects
Mitochondrion
An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells described as "cellular power plants", because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP
Mitosis
The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
Muscular System
This system is responsible for movement of bones and fluids throughout the body. It helps move food through the digestive system. It consists of skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.
Nervous System
This system receives and transmits information and responses. It depends upon electrical impulses created by the movement of charged particles. It consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Non-Vascular Plant
This is a type of plant, such as a moss, that lacks vascular tissue (xylem or phloem), is generally very small, and reproduces with spores.
Nucleolus
This organelle, found in the nucleus, produces ribosomes
Nucleus
The structure that houses the cells genetic information
Organ
A group of tissues working together to perform a similar function
Organism
Any living thing with one or more cells
Osmosis
The movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Ovary
This is the egg-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
Passive Transport
A non-energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane with the concentration gradient
Phloem
This is a type of living vascular tissue in plants, that transports sugars from the leaves down to the stems and the roots
Photosynthesis
This is a chemical process that uses light to process carbon dioxide in plants.
Plant
This is any living thing without the power of locomotion that obtain energy from sunlight or make their own food
Plant Cell
This kind of cell has a large central vacuole and a cell wall
Plasmid
This is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is capable of independent replication. It usually occurs in bacteria
Pollen
The cells that carry the male DNA of a seed plant
Pollination
This is a transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
Protein Synthesis
This is a two-part process that ends in the assembly of proteins at the ribosomes within cells. The first part, transcription, begins in the nucleus, when the DNA code is transferred to mRNA. The second part, translation, takes place at the ribosomes, where both mRNA and tRNA work to assemble proteins.
Pseudopodia
This is a shape-changing cell structure used by amoebas to move and to engulf food
Replication
This is the copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA.
Reproductive System
This system produces gametes; in females, nutures and protects developing embryos. It consists of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, and penis (in males); ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina (in females).
Ribosome
This organelle synthesizes proteins
RNA
A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis
Root
This is the part of a vascular plant that is typically below ground level and has no leaves or nodes. Its major functions are to anchor the plant and to absorb water and nutrients.
Seed Dispersal
This is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant
Sexual
This is a type of reproduction where there is a exchange of genetic information in order to create new individuals.
Skeletal Muscle
This is a form of striated, voluntary muscle tissue. It is linked to bone by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons
Skeletal System
This system relates to the structure and support of an organism. It is made of salts and proteins and found in vertebrate animals. It protects internal organs; allows movement; contains cells that produce blood cells. It consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.
Smooth Muscle
This is an involuntary, non-striated muscle found throughout the human body.
Stem
This is the main structural axis of the plant that supports leaves, flowers and fruits; transports fluids; stores nutrients and produces new tissue.
Stomata
These are tiny openings or pores found mostly on the underside of a plant leaf and used for gas exchange
System
This is a group of interdependent organs with similar function
Telophase
This is the final phase of nuclear cell division during which a nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes
Tissue
This is a group of cells with similar structure or function
Transpiration
This is the loss of water from the leaves of a plant
Vacuole
This is a tiny fluid-filled cavity in the cytoplasm. It can be used for storage of biochemicals.
Vascular Plant
This is a type of plant that contains a system of water-carrying vessels (xylem) and sugar carrying vessels (phloem).
Xylem
This is a system of non-living straw-like vascular tissue that carries water from the roots to the stem and leaves of all vascular plants, and forms layers of wood.
Endoplasmic reticulum
This is an organelle in eukaryotic cells with a series of highly folded membranes surrounded in cytoplasm; site of cellular chemical reactions; can either be rough (with ribosomes) or smooth (without ribosomes).
Organelle
This is a membrane-bound structure within a eukaryotic cell.
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell that lacks internal membrane-bound structures.
Integumentary System
This system guards against infection, injury, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. It helps regulate body temperature. It consists of the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands.
Respiratory System
This system brings in oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body. It consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs.