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Land grants

Federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines

Union Pacific Railroad

The original transcontinental railroad
Commissioned by Congress
Built west of Omaha

Central Pacific Railroad

The California-based railroad
A lot of Chinese labor
Headed by Leland Stanford

Northern Pacific Railroad

Northernmost transcontinental railroad
Organized by James J. Hill

Stock Watering

Dishonest device in which railroad promoters artificially inflated the price of their stocks and bonds

Huse vs. Glover

Supreme Court case of 1886
Prevented states from regulating railroads
Prevented other forms of interstate commerce

Interstate Commerce Commission

Federal regulatory agency often used by rail companies to stabilize the industry and prevent ruinous competition


Late-nineteenth-century invention
Revolutionized communication and created a large new industry relying heavily on female workers

Standard Oil

First of the great industrial trusts
Organized a principle of horizontal integration

U.S. Steel

The first billion-dollar American corporation
Organized when J.P. Morgan bought out Andrew Carnegie

New South

The technologically advanced industrial South

Colored National Labor Union

Black labor organization that briefly flourished in the late 1860s

Knights of Labor

Secret, ritualistic labor organization
Enrolled both skilled and unskilled workers
Collapsed after the Haymarket Square bombing


Skilled Labor Organizations
Ex: Carpenter organizations

American Federation of Labor

Labor group for SKILLED workers

Leland Stanford

Former governor of California
Ivy League donator of the West
Central Pacific Railroad

Russel Conwell

Pro-business clergyman
"Acres of Diamonds" speech-criticized the poor

James J. Hill

Railroad builder
Felt dedicated to the public
Northern Pacific Railroad

Cornelius Vanderbuilt

Creator of the New York Central rail line
Considered the law an obstacle to success

Charles Dana Gibson

Magazine illustrator who showed the athletic, independent woman

Alexander Graham Bell

Former teacher of the deaf
Inventor of the telephone

Thomas Edison

Electric light
The Phonograph
The Motion Picture

Andrew Carnegie

Steel industry leader
Scottish immigrant
Vertical Integration

John D. Rockefeller

Owner of Standard Oil
Trust builder based on Horizontal Integration

J.P. Morgan

A rich banker
Bought out Carnegie Steel Company
Created the United States Steel Corporation

Henry Grady

Southern newspaper editor
Promoted industrialization as the salvation of the economically backward South

Terence V. Powderly

Leader of the Knights of Labor

William Graham Sumner

Intellectual defender of laissez-faire capitalism
Argued that the wealthy owed NOTHING to the poor

John P. Altged

Illinois governor who pardoned the Haymarket anarchists

Samuel Gompers

Organizer of the AF of L
Advocated more wages for skilled workers

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