Upgrade to remove ads
Nutrition exam 3
Terms in this set (193)
basics of vitamins, essential or not? organic or not?
vitamins have 0 calories per gram.
they can be destroyed by compounds such as heat, milk, uv light, and cooking. vitamins are organic - they contain carbon.
antioxidants counteract oxidation, the also fight against free radicles. they have oxygen groups that go in and keep your cells healthy and clean.
molecules that are missing a paired electron in the outer rim, they will gain or give up an electron to be stable. they damage our DNA and cell membranes
fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K. need a fat source, only 40-80% of fat soluble vitamins are absorbed
where are fat soluble vitamins absorbed?
Where are fat soluble vitamins stored?
toxicity of fat soluble vitamins
greater risk for toxicity than water soluble vitamins
water soluble vitamins
B and C
absorption of water soluble vitamins
directly into the blood
storage of water soluble vitamins
not stored by the body
toxicity of water soluble vitamins
possible to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements
Vitamin A food sources
liver, fish oils, fortified milk, eggs
Vitamin A functions
vision, stem cells, mucus producing epithelial tissues
beta carotene basics
red - orange pigment found in fruits and vegetables
Where is beta-carotene found?
colorful fruits and veggies
functions of beta-carotene
vision, stem cells, mucus producing epithelial tissues, main vitamin A found in foods.
two main types of vitamin A
preformed vitamin A - retinoids
provitamin A - carotenoids
Vitamin A deficiency
decreased immunity, epithelial tissue changes, vision. Vitamin A deficiency is the #1 cause of blindness in the world. : Xeropthalmia - eye loses ability to produce mucus
eye can't produce mucus
Vitamin A toxicity
higher osteoporosis risk, acute: one time dose, chronic: daily, liver damage, Teratogenic: birth defect forming - born without extremities, half of head, half of brain. also higher risk of osteoporosis.
vitamin D sources
"sunshine vitamin" cheese, margarine, butter, fortified milk, healthy cereals, fatty fish
factors that effect vitamin D sun exposure
sky scrapers, sunscreen, deficiency of other nutrients, location, smog, clouds, low fat diets?? SKIN COLOR!!!
vitamin D key functions
absorption and transport
regulated blood calcium and phosphorus levels. When blood calcium levels drop, Vitamin D triggers the uptake of more calcium from food!
other functions: immunity, secretion of hormones, possible auto immune benefits.
vitamin D RDA
20 mcg/day if over 70
Vitamin D deficiencies
rickets in children _ bones don't mineralize, osteocalcin in adults - softening of bones.
Vitamin D toxicity
mainly through supplements. kidney stones, calcium deposits in heart and lungs
vitamin E food sources
plant oils (canola, safflower, sunflower) wheat germ, almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds
2 key vitamin E functions
strong antioxidant - fight of free radicles
anticoagulant - blood thiner
why are so many low on Vitamin E?
most likely in smokers, low fat dieters, and those with fat malabsorption
Vitamin K food sources
green leafy veggies, broccoli, asparagus, Brussel sprouts. veggie oils and margarine
vitamin K functions
blood clotting, bone metabolism
Vitamin K deficiencies
RARE symptoms would most likely impact blood clotting ability, GI infections, possibly in use of certain antibiotics, fat malabsorption diseases.
newborns and vitamin K
injections are given to newborns immediately after birth
How are water soluble vitamins absorbed?
most water soluble vitamins are absorbed into SI - duodenum and jejunum and directly in the portal vein
how are water soluble vitamins stored?
absorbed into portal vein and transported to lived where they are stored or sent out into circulation
water soluble vitamins excreted
excess water soluble vitamins are excreted through kidneys into urine
why are B vitamin deficiencies in alcoholics?
alcohol flushes vitamin b from your system since your are urinating more frequently
Vitamin C in Humans
humans don't have the enzyme to make vitamin C from glucose. birth control can destroy it.
vitamin C functions
antioxidant, immunity - abc have the highest amount of vitamin c, they count on them, collagen - is the most abundant protein in our bodies, need vitamin c to make it, iron absorption - vitamin c helps iron be absorbed.
Vitamin C RDA
Men: 90 mg/day
Women: 75 mg/day
Vitamin C deficiency
scurvy - bleeding gums, fatigue, sore joints, pinpoint hemorrhages.
Vitamin C toxicity
GI distress, diarrhea
Vitamin C food sources
fruits (citrus fruits, strawberries), vegetables (broccoli, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes)
Thaimin (B1) function
coenzyme in CHO & BCAA metabolism thiamin pyrophosphate (TTP)
helps convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA
Thaimin food sources (general)
Whole and enriched grains
LEAN PORK, legumes, seeds, nuts
beriberi ( I can't I can't) extreme exhaustion
Riboflavin (B2) functions
(flavin means yellow) coenzyme in energy metabolism, support antioxidants and other b vitamins
Riboflavin food sources
milk, yogurt, whole and enriched grains
Riboflavin deficiency symptoms
ariboflavinosis: cheilosis (lips), stomatitis (mouth), glossitis (tongue) dermatitis (skin)
Niacin (B3) function
coenzyme in energy metabolism (NAD+ and NADP+), assists in lots of chemical reactions
Niacin food sources
whole and enriched grains, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, ALSO MADE FROM TRYPTOPHAN (60 GRAMS OF TRYPTOPHAN MAKES 1MG OG NAICIN)
Niacin pharmacological use
pellagra: 4 D's- Diarrhea, Dermatitis, dementia and death.
Folate 2 types
natural and synthetic
function of pantothenic acid (B5)
folate 3 key functions
DNA synthesis and cell division, red blood cell synthesis, homocysteine metabolism
Folate food sources
green leafy veggies, orange juice, lentils, legumes, fortified cereals, enriched grains, liver
neural tube defects (spina bifida), microcytic anemia, increases risk for CVD
folic acid supplements can mask a B12 deficiency
Vitamin B6 food sources
meat, fish, poultry, liver, potatoes, bananas, watermelon, sunflower seeds, whole grains
Vitamin B6 main function
know the enzymes they make in body!! COME BACK TO THIS
vitamin B12 function
needed for normal folate function, without it develop microcytic anemia
Vitamin B12 and folate
Giving someone with a B12 deficiency folic acid will clear up the large red blood cells because folic acid is already active... but the underlying problem continues
vitamin B12 food source
meats, liver, milk, eggs
either from poor dietary intake or malabsorption - due to lack of HCL, poor action of pancreatic enzymes, gastric bypass
symptoms: fatigue, shortness of breath
who is at risk for B12 deficiency
vegans, older adults, those with GI infections or malabsorption
B12 intrinsic factor
intrinsic facto binds to a receptor site on an intestinal cell in the ilia and releases B12 into the cell
B12 relationship with stomach acidity
HCL and pepsin release B12 from proteins
Biotin and Pantothenic Acid: are they vitamins?
yes, water soluble B5 and B7 vitamins
Biotin and Pantothenic Acid: which is part of Acetyl CoA molecule?
major vs trace minerals
Major more than 100 mg/day
Trace less than 100 mg/day usually around 20
what increases availability of minerals?
Factors that increase bioavailability : deficiency in a mineral increases absorption, cooking increases the bioavailability of minerals in legumes, vitamin c increases the absorption of some minerals such as iron, vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium.
what decreases the bioavailability of minerals?
Binders, such as OXALATES found in many foods, PHYTATES found in nuts, whole grains, and many legumes, POLYPHENOLS in teas and coffee, supplementation of single minerals affects absorption of competing minerals.
How does bioavailability differ in plants vs. animals?
bone health, muscles, nerves, and blood, Recent Research: Kidney stones, High blood pressure, Colon cancer, Obesity, Osteoporosis
percentage of calcium in bones
how much calcium do we absorb
30%, 75% in times of need
calcium and phosphorus relationship
phosphate builds up in body and binds to calcium which lowers calcium levels.
1000 mg/day for adults
1200 mg/d for women over 50 and men over 70
adolescents 1300 mg/d
regulation of blood calcium
o Body controls it through hormones
o When our calcium is elevated the hormone calcitonin kicks in, it triggers the bones to stop producing so much calcium, and it tells the kidneys to excrete urine
o If calcium is low then PTH hormone is released to try and get calcium back up to where it needs, it tells bones to release more calcium, then it tells the kidneys to retain more calcium when excreting urine, activate vitamin d so that we absorb more calcium.
Calcium dissolves in the stomach and is absorbed through the lining of the small intestine into the blood stream. Once in the blood stream, calcium builds bone, regulates the expansion and contraction of the blood vessels, and performs other important functions.
calcium food sources
less than 10%: spinach, rhubarb, okra
20-30%: milk, cheese, yogurt, tofu, soy milk, salmon, OJ with calcium, almonds, beans
more than 40%: kale, broccoli, Chinese mustard greens, turnip greens, green cabbage
calcium supplementation basics
high usage of supplements can maybe cause heart attacks
why do minerals like acidity?
to break the minerals off from the food
hypercalcmia - high calcium in blood, calcification of soft tissue, possible link with increased heart attacks
diet: calcium, vitamin D, omega 3s, alcohol, carbonated drinks
lifestyle: exercise, smoking, weight status
second out abundant, we tend to take in enough through diet, 1.5% of body weight
part of ATP, cell membranes, and bone/teeth, man intracellular ion
Phosphorus food sources
milk, meat, cheese, bread, food additives
phosphorus high intake linked with what?
bone loss (High dietary Phos & low Ca++ can cause loss of Ca++ from bones to maintain balanced blood levels)
one of healthiest minerals!!
muscles, nerves, bones, metabolism, DNA and RNA
Magnesium food sources
mainly plant based foods: Green leafy veggies, whole grains, nuts, legumes, fruits
Coffee, tea, cocoa
Some animal foods: milk, yogurt, meat, chocolate
most people don't get enough, but severe deficiency is rare. Seen in fluid losses, rapid heart rate, muscle spasms
regulates fluid balance and blood pressure. nerve impulses and muscle contraction. helps absorption of GLU and AA
salt and processed foods
RDA of sodium vs actual
1500 mg/day vs 3500 mg/day
Sodium and HTN
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
which 3 minerals are emphasized in the DASH diet
lower in sodium higher in calcium, magnesium and potassium
MAJOR CATION IN INTRACELLULAR FLUID, fluid and pH balance, nerve conduction and muscle contraction
potassium food sources
fruits, veggies, low fat dairy, nuts, beans, salt substitutes
not rare mild deficiency is common, increases risk of hypertension, cramps, irregular heart beat
Bone health can be linked to which vitamins and minerals? (not just calcium!!)
such as calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, potassium, and fluoride
most abundant trace mineral. part of hemoglobin and myoglobin, also coenzyme, brain function, immunity
food sources of iron
Heme iron: is meat, poultry, seafood, and fish, so heme iron is the type of iron that comes from animal proteins in our diet.
Non-heme iron: found in plant-based foods like grains, beans, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds.
anemia, RBC, oxygen transport limitations
RDA: 18mg/d women, 8mg/d men
After 51 y/o, drops for women to 8mg/day
Vegetarians need up to 1.8x more
Who is at risk for iron deficiency?
premature babies, infants, toddlers, adolescents, young women, elderly, vegans, runners
What helps/hinders absorption of iron
hemochromatosis, liver damage.
increased production of free radicles
Cofactor for over 300+ enzymes (growth, metabolism), Immunity, Wound healing, Taste perception
zinc food sources
red meats, seafood, milk, bread, whole grains, beans
often seen due to poverty. decreased sense of taste, poor growth, delayed development, acne like rash, mental confusion.
selenoproteins: strong AO, work well with vitamin . thyroid function/hormones
selenium works well with what nutrient?
Selenium & Prostate Cancer
deficiency has connections to prostate cancer
MAKES THYROID HORMONE
main iodine food source
Goiter: enlarged thyroid gland
Cretinism: mental retardation
Occurs in fetus when pregnant woman is deficient
inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis; toxic goiter
helps with absorption, immune function, coenzyme/metabolism
how does copper help with immunity?
Copper deficiency genetic diseases
MENKES DISEASE: is a transportation disorder
WILSONS DISEASE: prevents body from excreting copper
maintain healthy teeth, bone health
fluoridated water (usually not bottled) tooth paste, mouth rinses
teeth become mottled, white patches/stains. ONLY OCCURS WHILE TEETH ARE FORMING.
Chromium relationship with diabetes
May increase number of insulin receptors as well as help increase insulin's ability to work
chromium food sources
whole grains mushrooms, meats, fish, beer, dark chocolate, egg yolks
Poor stomach acidity... which vitamins and minerals can be affected?
The most common vitamins and minerals that require sufficient stomach acid to be properly absorbed are magnesium, zinc, calcium, iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid. 13 common symptoms of low stomach acid: Bloating, belching and flatulence immediately after meals. Indigestion, diarrhea or constipation.
The chemical structure of vitamin B12 contains cobalt
true, Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin, is a complex vitamin containing the mineral cobalt.
The functions of vitamin B12 include __________.
DNA synthesis, the maintenance of healthy nervous tissue, synthesis of healthy red blood cells
absorption of vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 binds with intrinsic factor synthesized in the stomach.
Pancreatic enzymes release vitamin B12 from the R-protein.
Hydrochloric acid and pepsin are necessary to release vitamin B12 from food.
Vitamin B12 is attached to a protein called transcobalamin II and travels in the blood bound to this protein.
a provitamin is ________
a vitamin precursor that is converted to a vitamin in the bod
The degree to which a nutrient is absorbed from foods and used in the body is called __________
Formation of free radicals can increase your risk of cancer and heart disease.
Free radicals contain an unpaired electron.
Free radicals steal electrons from phospholipids found in cell membranes.
Free radicals can be neutralized by antioxidants.
Vitamin E is considered an antioxidant.
One of the roles of vitamin E in the body is to __________.
neutralize free radicals before they can harm cell membranes
The primary function of the B vitamins is to__________.
act as coenzymes in energy production
A deficiency of niacin can cause __________
__________ helps the body absorb vitamin B12.
After absorption, fat-soluble vitamins are packaged into ________ and transported along with other lipids.
A breakfast high in antioxidants would include __________.
Foods that have additional vitamins added to them are called ________ foods.
Factors that influence the ability to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight include
amount of time spent outdoors, skin color, location
People taking anticoagulant medications such as Coumadin need __________ intake of vitamin K.
A patient with symptoms including dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia (the three Ds) may have a deficiency in __________.
Which vitamin is part of the structure of acetyl CoA?
Which vitamin is sometimes called the "beauty vitamin" because it helps enhance hair and nails?
A lack of intrinsic factor is associated with __________.
Which of the following is a common characteristic of all vitamins and minerals?
They provide no kilocalories for the body.
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins but not minerals?
They can be either water or fat soluble
Which of the following is a characteristic of minerals but not vitamins?
Minerals are inorganic molecules, while vitamins are organic.
Which of the following foods is the best source of calcium?
Edgar does not like drinking milk but likes cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. What can you tell about Edgar's calcium intake?
Edgar is getting adequate calcium from his diet. Cheese, yogurt, and ice cream are good sources of calcium.
Carol is a vegan and does not eat dairy foods. Is it possible for her to obtain the daily recommended amount of calcium from a diet without taking supplements?
Carol can easily obtain adequate amounts of calcium from natural foods, even if she is a vegan.
One cup of skim milk has approximately 80 kcal. One ounce of low-fat cheddar cheese has approximately 50 kcal. How many kilocalories would need to be consumed to get approximately 300 mg of calcium from each of these two sources individually?
skim milk-80 kcal; low-fat cheddar cheese-125 kcal
The Dairy Group is the only food group with a significant amount of calcium.
Which of the following foods is the best source of iron?
Which of the following lists presents the foods in order from the best to the poorest source of iron?
beef, dark meat chicken, white meat chicken
Jessi is a vegan and knows she needs to consume more iron. She does not want to take supplements, but instead get iron from natural foods. Which of the following would be the best source of iron for Jessi that does not include animal products?
Which of the following vegetables would be the best source of iron?
Meats are the only food group with a significant amount of iron.
Bioavailability of trace minerals can vary because they __________.
compete with each other for absorption
The distinction between the major and trace minerals is __________.
the amount required in the body
The main minerals found in hydroxyapatite are __________
calcium and phosphorus
the crystalline salt structure that provides strength in bones and teeth. Calcium and phosphorus are the main minerals found in the structure.
Which would provide the most potassium?
Who knew? Happily, cocoa is an excellent source of what trace mineral?
which of the following is a sign of zinc deficiency?
hair loss and skin rash
Which mineral enhances insulin activity?
Which of the following statements is true about iron?
iron is important in brain functions
roles that minerals play in the body?
Minerals participate as cofactors, Minerals help maintain fluid balance, Minerals make up bones and teeth.
In addition to preventing osteoporosis, calcium may have a protective effect against which type of cancer?
The most abundant trace mineral in the body is
enhance absorption of iron
the presence of the heme form of iron.
an increased need for iron.
the presence of vitamin C
All of the following decrease iron absorption
phytates, polyphenols, oxalates
Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes individuals to absorb too much
The mineral best known for its role as an antioxidant is __________.
Consumption of chromium can increase lean body mass and improve body composition.
Which of the following is a test to determine iron stores in the body?
total iron-binding capacity
Which of the following minerals is linked with energy metabolism?
Which of the following minerals is linked with fluid and electrolyte balance?
Which of the following minerals is linked with antioxidant function?
Which of the following minerals is linked with blood health
Which of the following minerals is linked with bone health?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Organic Compounds & Nutrition
Nutrition Ch. 1
KNH 101 Midterm
HUN1201 CH 1 INTRO HUN1201
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
HA exam 4
KIN quiz 3 questions
Blue link questions unit one