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A document granting an inventor sole rights to an invention


The amount of goods and services created in a given period of time.

Transcontinental Railroad

Railway that stretched from the Atlantic to Pacific coasts

Mass Production

Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply

Social Darwinism

Members of a species constantly compete to survive; applied survival of the fittest and natural selection to economics, war, the races


A market structure in which a few large firms dominate a market


A consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service

Vertical Consolidation

Process of gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a product's development

Economies of Scale

As the firm gets larger, the average costs of production falls


A group of companies managed by the same board of directors


A compensation system in which employees are paid a set rate for each item they produce


Factory where workers do piecework for poor pay and are prevented from forming unions

Division of Labor

Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers


A political theory advocating state ownership of industry

Craft Union

A union representing skilled workers in a single occupation - electricians, carpenters, plumbers, etc. - regardless of the industry in which the worker is employed.

Collective Bargaining

Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract

Industrial Union

A labor union that admits all workers in a given industry irrespective of their craft


Someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike


Person who seeks to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority

Great RR Strike of 1877

Unionized RR workers organized numerous strikes to protest wage cuts. Violence spread all over the US, state militia had to break some of them up, and strikebreakers were taken in to replace workers. Pittsburgh saw the worst unrest, and Hayes had to send in federal troops to quell the riots (1st use of army to stop labor unrest).

Haymarket Riot

(1886) A planned strike by the Knights of Labor results in police confrontation and a bomb


Settle land given by the government and occupy it as a homestead


In 1894, a strike at this location was ordered to halt and was told that their striking violation the Sherman anti-trust act of 1890. This led to people like Gompers being very upset with the judge. The Sherman anti-trust at was created to stop monopolies from limiting competition. Instead it was used against labor unions, saying that they limited competition, and forcing workers to avoid unions.

Anthracite Coal

New source of fuel that made dramatic changes in industrial use of light, heat, and motion

Thomas Edison

He perfected the light bulb in 1879. Technological advancement by creating generators, voltage regulators, electric meters, and insulated wiring. Phonograph, mimeograph, microphone, motion picture camera and film, battery, etc

Samuel Morse

United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)

George Westinghouse

An american entrepreneruer and engineer who invented the railroad and the air brake

Henry Bessemer

Developed a process of purifying iron to create steal and created the bessemer process.

Alexander G. Bell

American inventor and educator; he invented the telephone in 1876

Elisha Otis

Inventor who developed the first safety elevator in 1852.

Charles Goodyear

American inventor who discovered that by mixing sulfur and rubber in a process called vulcanizing, he could "cure" rubber and make it more elastic and usable

Lewis LAtimer

African american inventor who played a key role in improving practical electrical lighting

George Pullman

Made his fortune by designing and building sleeper cars that made long distance rail travel more comfortable. Built a company town near Chicago for his employees.

Elias Howe

United States inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers (including Isaac M. Singer) (1819-1867)

Uriah Stephens

Founded knights of labor in 1869.

Terence Powderly

He was a well-known national figure as leader of the Knights of Labor from 1883-1893.

Samuel Gompers

United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)

Eugene V. Debs

Led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union

Henry Frick

Was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.

Edwin Drake

Drilled 1st oil well in the US, in PA in 1859

Richard Olney

Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.

Jacob Riis

A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.

John & Washington Roebling

Constructors of the Brooklyn Bridge


A private detective agency founded in 1850. During the labor unrest of the late 19th century, Pinkertons were hired to infiltrate labor unions, and as security guards. They were well known for their involvement in the Homestead Strike, where they protected the strikebreakers.

Andrew Carnegie

Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"

John D. Rockefeller

Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history

James J. Hill

"Empire Builder", builder of the great North American RailRoad

Cornelius Vanderbilt

A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.

James B. Duke

Owner of an American Tobacco Company, which established a virtual monopoly over the processing of raw tobacco into marketable materials.

Andrew Mellon

Secretary of the Treasury. Successfully pushed congress to lower taxes

Gustavus Swift

He was a meat king that used a trust to get wealthy. It showed that wealth was dominating the common wealth.

Philip Armour

Formed the Armour and company which the worlds largets food and chemical manufacturing company in the country. he also established the largest privated refrigerator car fleet. He pioneered the principles of large sclae reorganization an the refrigeration industry

Leland Standford

President of the Central Pacific who hammered in the final golden spike that united the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific , which created the first Transcontinental Railroad.

Rutherford B. Hayes

19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

Theodore Roosevelt

26th U.S. President. 1901-1909. Republican

Knights of Labor

Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes

American Federation of Labor

Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor

National Trades Union

Organized in 1834, this association was created after the New York Trades Union called a convention of delegates from numerous city centrals. Headed by Ely Moore, who was elected to Congress on the Tammany ticket, this union disintegrated along with a number of other national conventions with the Panic of 1837


Headed by Daniel Haywood, The Industrial Workers of the World were a group that believed that there would eventually be a struggle between the rich and poor. They believed, that, in order to stop this, they needed to destroy wages and essentially take over the world.

Commonwealth v. Hunt

(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.

Bessemer Process

A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.


A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller

Horizontal Consolidation

The process of bringing together many firms in the same business to form one large company

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