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CH 3 Cells
Terms in this set (54)
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
Over 200 different types of human cells
Types differ in size, shape, subcellular components, and functions
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Control center of the cell
substances found outside cells
a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
saliva and mucus
body fluids located outside of cells
structure of plasma membrane
double phospholipid layer. -hydrophilic heads(towards water), -hydrophobic tails(away from water)
Embedded proteins that perform specific functions for the cell membrane.
Firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer. Most are transmembrane proteins, that span the entire membrane and protrude on both sides. The have both hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions. This structural feature allows them to interact with both the nonpolar lipid tails and the water outside the cell.
Loosely attached to integral proteins
Include filaments on intracellular surface for membrane support
Function as enzymes; motor proteins for shape change during cell division and muscle contraction; cell-to-cell connections
membrane proteins that help move substances across a cell membranece
Receptors for signal transduction
• A membrane protein exposed to the
outside of the cell may have a binding site
that fits the shape of a specific chemical
messenger, such as a hormone.
• When bound, the chemical messenger may
cause a change in shape in the protein that
initiates a chain of chemical reactions in the
A protein built into the membrane may be an enzyme with its active site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution. In some cases, several enzymes in a membrane are organized as a team that carries out sequential steps of a metabolic pathway
The function of membrane proteins in which some glycoproteins serve as ID tags that are recognized by membrane proteins of other cells.
Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
Consists of sugars (carbohydrates) sticking out of cell surface
Some sugars are attached to lipids (glycolipids) and some to proteins (glycoproteins)
Every cell type has different patterns of this "sugar coating"
Functions as specific biological markers for cell- to-cell recognition
Allows immune system to recognize "self" vs. "nonself"
connections between cells that hold the cells together as a unit
ex: blood cells, sperm cells
prevent fluids and most molecules from moving between cells
Anchoring junctions that prevents cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart; button like thickenings of adjacent plasma membranes connected by fine protein filaments
transmembrane proteins form pores that allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
simple diffusion (passive transport)
Nonpolar lipid soluble substances diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer. (Solids Only)
process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
measure of total concentration of solute particles
Pressure exerted by a volume of fluid against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that encloses the fluid.
the pressure that would have to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis, often used to express the concentration of the solution.
The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water.
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
active membrane transport
energy (ATP) required; occurs only in living cell membranes; substance moves up or against its concentration or pressure gradient; utilizes pumps and vesicular transport
transport one substance into cell while transporting a different substance out of cell
transport two different substances in the same direction
primary active transport
Active transport that relies directly on the hydrolysis of ATP.
ex: calcium, hydrogen, Na+ -K+ pumps
secondary active transport
Required energy is obtained indirectly from ionic gradients created by primary active transport
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes
a transport process through which a cell takes in large molecules
transport out of cell
Cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
vesicle formed as a result of phagocytosis
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
The uptake of specific molecules based on a cell's receptor proteins
provide main route for endocytosis and transcytosis
have smaller pits and different protein coat from clathrin, but still capture specific molecules (folic acid, tetanus toxin) and use transcytosis
process where material is ejected from cell
mucus, hormones, neurotransmitters
resting membrane potential
An electrical potential established across the plasma membrane of all cells by the Na+/K+ ATPase and the K+ leak channels. IN most cells, the resting membrane potential is approximately -70 mV with respect to the outside of the cell.
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