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What is 1 + 3?
Shaw, pp. 8-12
what is right is determined by what a culture or society says is right
ethical relativist (1)
says no absolute ethical standard independent of cultural context
ethical relativist (2)
points to apparent diversity of human values
disagreement in ethical matters
does not imply all opinions are equally correct
ethical relativism cannot criticize practices as long as they conform to society's standards
ethical relativism cannot say that moralities get better or worse
moral code cannot be criticized because what society says is right is right
principle as part of a moral code: (1) motivates toward required conduct, (2) leads to guilt when conduct violates it, (3) disapproves of others who conflict with it
"Follow your conscience"
depends on what our conscience says
morality and self-interest
following moral principles is not always in our best interest
having a moral principle
involves having desire to follow the principle for its own sake, because it is the right thing to do
paradox of selfishness
individuals who care only for their own happiness are less happy than those who care about others
morality in narrow sense
moral principles that guide conduct
morality in broad sense
values, ideals and aspirations that shape our lives
life goal of achieving human excellence leading to happiness