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Van Belle - chapter 14: political culture, Poli Sci Mid-Term
Terms in this set (41)
a set of values that a group shares including beliefs, practices, and traditions
Why does culture matter when trying to explain politics?
because culture can impede communication and understanding
Why can culture be problematic?
because it offers a simple universal explanation that appears to cover everything, but in reality, it is not simple or universal
the shared social context from which people make political choices
the process by which the group teaches the shared context to members of society
a smaller culture within the main political culture
the shared political norms, values, and beliefs of a citizenry about politics
attitudes towards the political system & role of citizens in that syst.
method of maintaining, managing, and gaining control of government (who gets what, when, and how)
a political culture in which citizens widely share a belief in the legitimacy of their regime and a trust in the government; therefore the citizens demonstrate restraint in their demands on the government
an attribute of political participation that measures one's concern for an election outcome and the positions of the candidates on the issues
American political interest
60% very or somewhat interested
39% not very/ not at all interested
-democratic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences grow out of particip in voluntary organizations.
- joining civic groups, social groups, clubs, churches, and other organizations which expose different, broader groups of people
Social capital improves democracy
-> builds interpersonal trust
-> builds notions of reciprocity
-> the more people engage and invest in each other, the more benefits society enjoys
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
The belief that one can understand politics and therefore participate in politics
A belief that the system will respond to a citizen's demands.
-The idea that the American experience was different or unique from others, and therefore America had a unique or special role in the world, such as a "city upon a hill."
- (locke) protection and rewarding individual liberties
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
equality of opportunity
a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential
equality of outcome
The concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved.
If we do not engage with each other, we are isolated
-> we lack the relationships with others
-> nobody lends money, no body invests in businesses, and the market cannot function
-> We are politically paralized, so govt becomes paralyzed
-> We refuse to participate in the "marketplace of ideas"
-rule of the people
-introduced around civil war
-was usually tied to emotion and mob mentality
-French Revolution inspired American Civil War
-governing power rests in the state, citizens do not participate
-not total control/ no utopian society/ only for the sake of power over the people (nazi)
total govt control over all aspects of life/ utopian vision
A form of democracy that is defined by whether or not particular procedures are followed, such as free and fair elections or following a set of laws or a constitution.
process of voting
author of "Who Governs?" and created the idea of a "criteria of democracy"
- inclusiveness and public contestation
criteria of democracy acc. to dahl
* they have to be considered fundamental unalienable rights
- effective participation
- equality in voting
- gaining enlightened understanding
- final control of the agenda
- fundamental rights
->individual or combined actions of individuals, govts, and/or groups aimed at getting what they want accomplished when those actions have public consequences (actions)
Harlod Lasswell's Definition
-> the process of determining who gets what, when, and how (process)
David Easton's Definition
-> the authoritative allocation of values for society (values)
the belief by a people that those who are in charge should be in charge and not someone else (internal)
the recognition by one country's government that the govt of another country should be in charge of that country and not someone else (external)
Responsiveness of Government
-> participation by large numbers of citizens in the political process
-> public contestation
-> competition between social groups for a policy position
less that the democratic ideal, but best of the forms of government that can exist in reality
A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty and emphasizes individual freedom and civil rights.
greater emphasis on the social welfare responsibility of govts
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
approach to governemnt based on limiting government power through a social contract ( constitution) and respecting personal freedoms and the rights of individuals
- wealth of nations
-individual wealth/ success based on merit
-atomistic vs. organic
-organic view of society "rug" / all interwoven together " what
- happens to you affects me and vice versa"
Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith)
- critique of mercantilism ("a country is as wealthy as its kind has gold" money the monarchy has)
- Smith believes govts were not doing well at economics, govt shouldnt be involved in business of country
- laissez-faire economics (hands-off)
- "Invisible Hand" of the free market/ law of supply and demand
A political ideology; unrestrained individual human reason cannot take the place of long-standing, traditional institutions.'
Edmund Burke - did not believe in equality, elite need to be in charge
response to Smith and to French Revolution
people are emotional and irrational
institutions are good and necessary
monarchy and church need to be kept
critique of capitalism
Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat
utopian society/ elimination of the bourgeoisie " all the same"
Moral Cost of Revolution
Taxation and Spending
fiscal policy - how every govt taxes and how they spend it
progressive taxation- the more you make the more you are taxed
Thomas Hill Green
system can deny us freedom -> govt has to step in (minimum wage laws)
government maintenance -> social safety net
poverty is a prison
purpose of fascism was about glorifying the state-> state over people.
Mussolini had to create a strong army
facism through Hitler was not based on reason or logic, instead used emotion and irrationality to motivate people " feelings"
nationalism plus racism
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