EDHP500: Foundations of Higher Education
Terms in this set (88)
Role of administrators during Colonial Period?
Clergymen, not professionals. Servants, butlers, cooks, "in loco parentis" with disciplining students. Presidents taught and disciplined students.
Great Awakening (1730s-1760s) & HE impact
Huge Christian revival with the creation of multiple denominations. Increased interest in math, sciences, modern languages (e.g. French).
Impact of American Revolution
Increased value in democracy/"power of the people" and critique in elitism.
Dartmouth vs. New Hampshire Case (1819)
Private (college) vs. Public (state of NH). Supreme Court rules that NH has no right to intrude on Dartmouth's decision-making since its charter did not include any wording about state control. Dartmouth faculty kicks out president that state of NH liked.
Local towns and cities forming colleges out of pride and desire for population growth. Over 700 colleges form in this time (and 450 collapse). Students are white, middle-class farmers; social mobility.
Antebellum/Pre-Civil War Student-Faculty-Admin/President composition?
Student: merchants and farmers for social mobility/technical training. Faculty: Tutors (fresh graduates teaching cohorts); professors (one subject, doctorate/experienced, "ivory tower"). Admin/President: Board of trustees, president as fundraiser.
Colonial Period college location?
Antebellum Period college location/differences?
Rural areas; try to avoid temptations/vices of city. Boredom results in increased crime/violence. Dorms and ResLife begins.
Antebellum college student demands
Extracurriculum; form their own literary societies and acquire books for intellectual stimulation outside of their required courses. Fraternities, debate orgs.
Highly-revered by traditionalists as a template for classical curriculum. Emphasized importance of Latin and Greek in developing the "furniture" of the mind; discipline.
K-8 education. Standardize teaching practices and certification process. States against it because it was an additional cost and teachers could just go to college for teaching credentials.
Factors for H.E. Reform in Post-Civil War?
Classic colleges were "old" and progress involved science and technology that colleges could not offer at the time. Social, political, cultural, and economic. North/Mid-West colleges grow in contrast to war-torn South.
What type of institution did the post-Civil War reform movement create?
UNIVERSITY! Collection of multiple colleges, idea that it will have everything a student needs. Departure from classical curriculum and into more sciences/vocational.
Thought colleges were a waste of time and money. Universities were superior. However, colleges fulfill niches of particular student populations (liberal colleges).
German model of university
Academic freedom; research and inquiry for development of nation/industrialization. Beyond just basic education; extending existing knowledge.
System of licensure for under-resourced schools to prepare students for college. Creation of HIGH SCHOOLS. Increases access to colleges. Certificate=G.E.D. Eventually
Serve part-time, financial need students. In cities. Vocational training and evening classes.
Land-Grant College (Pre-1810)
Morrill Act of 1862; states receive grants dedicated to building learning institutions. A&M (agriculture and mechanical colleges). North and mid-West portions of the country.
Land-Grant College Values and Social Movement?
Progressivism and democracy, where students would pursue a college experience to better themselves and society as a whole. Keep educated in the local community and avoid brain drain.
Separate but affiliated with established colleges. Women attended Radcliffe College, associated with Harvard.
2 institutions associated with extension of women's education?
Land-grant (West) and state (mid-West). Pioneer women who were capable of handling themselves. East still has seminary classes; coordinate colleges that segregate women from dominant or main college.
Location of 1st bachelor's degrees earned by African American scholars?
North East states; Amherst and Bowdoin in 1826.
Location of 1st Black Colleges?
Quakers in Philadelphia (1842). Institute for Colored Youth.
Who funded the creation of black colleges post-Civil War?
Missionary societies, wealthy philanthropists in North. However, lack of endowments and support causes many to disband.
Booker T. Washington
Supported vocational training separate from white schools. Believed that practical training empowers black community to obtain land and homes. Separatism.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Advocated black community rights in gaining complete and equal access to white education. Prefer classical curriculum since white counterparts used it.
Morrill Act of 1890
Separate but equal land-grant institutions. States must provide college education opportunities for black scholars but allowed to segregate from white students.
Charles Eliot of Harvard
Supported electives because it would increase student motivation. Believed that students had God-given strengths and attributes that would enable them to reach their full potential as human beings in society. Fosters scholarship. Agency for student
James McCosh of Princeton
Only professors knew what was right for students. Students incapable of deciding for themselves and would neglect serious academic pursuits; take courses like "duck-hunting." Reactionary/traditionalist that fully supported Yale Report.
Elective Principle effects
Develops majors and minors. Field-specific departments. Specialization of scholarship. "Fixed knowledge" of Yale report gradually loses traction in academe.
3 Requirements for Master's Degree
1) 3 years of school residency; 2) $5 graduation fee; 3) proof that you stayed out of jail.
Freedom to learn; students choose any course they want. No attendance or test requirements.
Freedom to teach; students/professors could share their teachings without restriction.
John Hopkins 1870s
Fellowship, research/PhD/doctorate (not just honorary like Yale in 1860), and graduate studies. Example for other universities to follow. Research for betterment of society; progressivism.
University of Virginia/Thomas Jefferson
Enabled students to choose their own classes. An experiment during the middle of the Civil War that many academics were intrigued by.
Instruments of University Growth
Preparatory/undergrad and grad programs; graduate schools; academic freedom lending to increase of diverse curriculum; specialized scholarship; dedication to social service.
Socio-political movement involving the belief in addressing broader societal issues and problems.
Engage the university's resources and knowledge directly in the search for solutions to public problems.
University of Wisconsin; extension programs like research projects in dairy industry or training for physical/social sciences. Larger movement of program initiatives.
College Settlement Movement
Social service movement where students are inspired to "fan out" into the cities and support slums with hygiene, diet, and child care.
3 Results of Progressivism Movement
1) student government; 2) honors system/conduct; 3) honor society for high-achieving scholars.
Football and President Roosevelt
Important extracurriculum that draws in alumni and local community. Academics did not support at first but it collects $$$, pride, and prestige for university. President Roosevelt's son was beaten in football so NCAA forms. No longer paying student athletes.
Corporate Influence on H.E.?
Commodification of research. Genuine academic inquiry becomes motivated by corporate greed. Board of trustees were businessmen, not scholars.
Bureaucratization of H.E.?
Due to increased enrollment, demand for specialized admin/management roles that professors could not fulfill while teaching/researching. Introduction of admissions and advising roles. Faculty/departmental hierarchies.
Ross Case at Stanford (1900)
Ross gives speech in class opposing Asian immigration. Stanford family, in charge of railroad company, hired Asian immigrants as cheap laborers and demanded Ross's resignation. *1st test of "academic freedom" principles. Supreme Court rules in favor of Stanford family, results in academics forming unions/teacher protections in name of academic freedom.
Faculty protection in 1900?
Tenure; protection from being fired without cause. Institutions must go through extensive investigation process before making a final decision. Justification: professors have the right to academic freedom and should not just echo what the public wants to hear.
Professor expectations during ascendency of university
Supposed to refrain from giving political opinions and just teach course subjects, especially if it opposed majority opinion.
"Publish or Perish"?
Creed of professors where they had to publish research or risk getting fired. Difficult balance between "useless research" and genuine inquiry for societal good.
Created for academics to publish peer-reviewed research. But majority eventually are controlled by multinational media corporations and influence research values.
College life in early 1900s
Student infantilism/extended childhood where students only go to college to have fun and not challenge themselves intellectually/better themselves. Normalization of "gentleman's C" and seeing college as a means to an end (professional pursuits).
Depression Era (late 1920s-1930s)
Massive economic dislocation and hardships result in students wanting to attend school if they could afford it. Uncertainty and doubt in society. Government aid lures students, as well as a growing social consciousness due to poverty.
Student Personnel Movement (1950s)
A.K.A. Student Affairs. Growing concern for holistic well-being of students. Deans and admins oversee dorms. Counseling. Full-time professional and academic advisors assist students with important decisions outside of course curriculum.
Democratization of Universities (1900-1930s)
Paradox of increased democratic values and access. Increase of marginalized student enrollment (Jewish, women, African-American scholars) but many still face discrimination on an institutional level. Jewish students faced anti-Semitism via special admissions requirements; women mostly accepted due to college competition and enrollment numbers; African American scholars still have minuscule enrollment (1/3 of 1% black students aged 18 to 21; compared to 5% of all whites).
Gaines Case (1938)
Separate but equal. Lloyd Lionel Gaines denied admission into University of Missouri's law school. Gaines wins but Supreme Court still upholds separate but equal clause.
Supporters believed that H.E needed to broaden student horizons and reinvigorate a sense of appreciation in knowledge/student learning. Need shared knowledge.
Specific fields of study
Breadth courses, general education, broad knowledge.
Study of Eurocentric "great books." Becomes a requirement before taking major classes. Purpose of broadening student knowledge beyond their field of interest.
Political climate Post-WWII
Political fear of "subversives" and "non-conformists." Professors lose jobs if perceived as Communist or if they refuse to reveal their political beliefs. McCarthy Commission investigates and accuses professors of Communist beliefs.
Veteran's/Government-Issued (G.I.) Bill
Post WWII factor that increases college enrollment.
1960's factor that increases college enrollment.
Marginalized population attendance/Civil Rights Movement
1970s-1990s factor that increases women and other minority group enrollment.
Federal government funds research grants and training contracts for college institutions in order to compete against Russia in technological advancements pertaining to space.
Corporate Transformation of American H.E. System
COMPETITION; interdepartmental and intercollegiate in research/funding. Mission statements, strategic planning, budgeting, record-keeping, cost-benefit analyses, marketing research. Differs from older H.E because it is a departure from the idea that colleges were isolated from society in idyllic enclaves without corporate involvement; nurturing of youth, leisurely contemplation.
Admission, grades, loans, scholarships, stipends, job search, grad school apps.
Tenure, salary, prestige/awards, preferred work assignments, publish/perish, GRANTS and CONTRACTS (adjunct)
Fighting for funding, space, administrative support.
Student enrollment and tuition payments.
Post WWII Enrollment for African American Scholars
Increases compared to pre-WWII enrollment. 6% of total college enrollment in 1947. However, courts begin to abolish affirmative action in favor of white scholars suing institutions for giving "preferential treatment" to admitted students of color.
Late 20th Century Curriculum Changes
Inclusion of black studies, Hispanic studies, gay studies, women's studies. Inspired by Civil Rights Movement (1960s). Increase of social justice awareness.
President of Berkeley notes that university is trying to be "all things for all people." Packaging/commodifying education as a product. Loss of a "community of learning" and genuine inquiry.
Critic of political correctness/affirmative action as preferential treatment towards historically marginalized groups and detriment to white, male scholars.
Decline of Professorship
Publish or Perish model. Professors seen as producing "useless" research just to stay employed (e.g. Ig Nobel Prize). Research takes away from teaching.
Decline of Academic Standards
Critics believe this is a result of massification and non-selectivity from democratic values being pushed. Lowered expectations, professors yielding to campus turmoil in 1960s-1970s and making classes easier/less exams.
Critics such as Jennifer Washburn and Jackson Lears criticize the market model intruding on academic life. Support Prussian/German ideas of long-term, authentic, intellectual inquiry to advance human knowledge, rather than short-term research motivated by profits.
Provides efficient, cost-effective routes to degrees and job placement in high-demand fields with good salaries. Phenomenal growth and demand globally.
Common Academic Model
Basic European university model; Italy and France. Or "The Paris Model" with professor at center and autonomy as guiding principle.
Primary means of spreading common academic model/Eurocentric model for universities. Britain to America, India, Africa, SE Asia. France to Vietnam and W. Africa. Spain to Latin America.
Prussian/German Academic Model
National development and industrialization via research during 19th century.
Why was the Prussian/German Academic Model so attractive?
Supported national/societal change and development.
American University Model
Combines German research and scholarship+English college model = a focus on service and research.
Expansion of higher education access for more diverse populations globally. H.E enrollment increases to 32.9% globally and increases each decade since WWII. Increase in community college equivalents, research institutions, and institutions focused on teaching.
Multinational Media Companies
Entities that own scholarly journals instead of academic societies or universities. Proof that there is a Western monopoly over the production and distribution of global knowledge system.
Condition of Academic Profession/Professors
Increase in adjunct professors as precarious professions. Affordable for university. Professors face pressures of teaching, researching, grant acquisition, consulting, and earning additional income since the salary is usually not enough.
Idea that academic curriculum alone doesn't fully encompass the college student experience. English university system = residential college system producing better people.
"Modern" courses like math, science, engineering that students could take in addition to classical curriculum. Criticized for increasing course load.
University of Virginia
Founded by Thomas Jefferson, allowing students to take popular/practical subjects. College divided into 8 schools and students could take any courses from any school. Abandoned 1831 due to classical curriculum integration.
Mid-1800s summer conferences where teachers shared pedagogy/teaching advice. Teachers went voluntarily and paid out of pocket but some states made it mandatory and paid attendance costs by 1840s.
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