Terms in this set (91)
Where did the first inhabitant of North America come from?
The first inhabitant of North America came from Asia
Why did they migrate to this continent?
The people were hunting mammoths who migrated to North America over the land bridge
Where is the land bridge now?
The flat bridge of ice once spanning the bering strait does not exist anymore
Why did agriculture start much later in the Americas than in Asia?
There were no large animals for agriculture in the Americas until the Spanish arrived
Why is there greater geographic diversity in the Western Hemisphere than in the Eastern Hemisphere?
The Western Hemisphere encompasses almost all latitudes and the latitude change led to geographic diversity
How did greater geographic diversity lead to greater cultural diversity?
People adapted to their environment in different ways
Why was there so little political unity in North America throughout much of its history?
Different native tribes had unique lifestyles which caused political disunity
How were North American peoples connected?
North American peoples were linked through trade and similar polytheistic religious beliefs
Who are the Anasazi?
Group of people in Southwest America, by 700 C.E. they constructed permanent stone or adobe dwellings
Who are the Mound Builders?
Located in the Ohio River Valley these people built large mounds which were ceremonial platforms, homes for elite leaders, and burial grounds
Where is Mesoamerica? How did inhabitants there adapt to their environment?
The middle of central America. They created things such as terraced framing and Chinampas
What are Chinampas?
Artificial islands built to use as farmland
What were the three major crops of Mesoamerica?
Maize, Squash, and Potatoes
Where did the first civilization develop in South America?
The Western Coast
How did geography restrict cultural interaction in South America?
Many geographic barriers such as the Andes Mountains, dry coastal plains, and the Amazon Jungle.
How did South American civilization adapt to their environment?
The Americans created terraced farming
What is the primary crop of South America?
What is the only "beast of burden" native to the Western Hemisphere?
Llamas and Alpaca
Where were the Maya located?
The Yucatan Peninsula
What is the time period that the Maya existed?
300 B.C.E - 900 C.E.
Who are the Olmecs?
A group of people in Mesoamerica who created a society in 120 B.C.E
What are the Olmec heads?
Up to 10 ft tall, 20 tons, transported by dragging, rolling on logs, 1,000 workers per head
Who are the Zapotecs?
Group of people in Mesoamerica who created cities
What are the Zapotec Contributions?
Hieroglyphic writing system, calendar based on the suns movement, influenced urban centers with cities, pyramid building
Name three important Mayan cities?
Tikal, Chichén Itza, and Uxmal
How were the Mayan cities organized?
Served as centers for religious ceremonies and trade. The cities contained pyramids, temples, palaces, and elabric stone carvings of gods.
What major products did the Maya produce?
Salt, flint, shells, and honey. Traded cotton textiles and jade ornaments.
How was trade conducted?
Cities with alliances traded local products where cocoa bean sometimes served as currency.
What three crops were the basis of Mayan life?
Maize, Beans, and Squash
What unique farming techniques were used?
Terraced farming, built fields up to allow excess water flow into canals, using irrigation water traveled long distances
Name the levels of the Mayan Social Pyramid
Lord/King, Priests/Warriors, Merchants/Artisans, Farmers, and Captured Slaves
Describe the powers of the Mayan King
Lead their city with absolute loyalty, decided who would be in ball games, and led the army
Who became king when a Mayan king died?
The son of the previous Mayan king
Describe the gods of the Maya
Corn, death, rain, and war. Could be good or evil, and sometimes both. Gods were associated with the direction and each day was a living god.
How did the Mayan worship their gods?
Prayer, made offerings of food, flowers, and incense. Cut and pierced their bodies and offered blood, bloodletting. Sometimes the Maya sacrificed humans.
Why did the Maya practice human sacrifice?
The Maya believed that it pleased the gods and kept the world in balance
Why did the Maya believe it was important to have an accurate calendar?
So the Maya could know when plant and harvest their crops and believed that a god carried each day and it was important to know which god.
How did the Maya use their calendars? For what purposes?
The Maya would calculate the amount of the time in each day and observe season changes. They used it to predict growing seasons. Solar calendar was extremely accurate.
Describe the mathematics achievements of the Maya.
A number system, the concept of zero which is required for high level mathematics, and symbols
Describe the writing system of the Maya
Hieroglyphics, god glyphs which are symbols. Only writing system in the western hemisphere
What is the Maya Codex?
Historical events recorded in books
How does the Popol Vuh describe the beginnings of the earth?
He believes that before the world was created calm and silence existed in nothing. The gods created the universe.
What happened to the Maya civilization? Why did it decline?
Maya history ended in mystery. Cities were abandoned. Theories are environmental destruction or constant warfare between tribes
How were Mayan Terraces made and what did they do?
Cut slabs into the landscape, allowed for farming in mountainous terrain
How were Mayan Raised Fields made and what did they do?
Large mounds of dirt were placed in various locations, crops were grown on these mounds, allowed for the Maya to farm away from destructive flooding
Where was Aztec civilization located?
What was the first major civilization in Mexico?
Describe the city of Teotihuacán.
Near Mexico City, population of 150,000-200,000 people, heart of city had 20 pyramids dedicated to various gods, people lived in Apartment-block houses
Describe the Pyramid of the Sun
200 feet tall, 3,000 feet across its base
Describe the trade network of Teotihuacan
Highways between cities allowed people to trade items such as obsidian
Describe the empire created by the Toltecs
900 C.E, ruled over Mexico from the capitol at Tula, built pyramids and temples, extremely warlike people who demanded human sacrifice from prisoners of war
Who is Topiltzin? How did he try to change Toltec religion?
A toltec ruler, he tried to remove human sacrifice and encouraged the worship of Quetzalcoatl
Who is Quetzalcoatl?
A god of the feather serpent
What happened to Topiltzin?
He was exiled to the Yucatan Peninsula where he influenced late-Mayan culture
What was the timeline of the Aztecs?
Aztec nomads arrive in Valley of Mexico in 12000, settle on Lake Texcoco, they find work as soldiers for hire from local rulers, in 1325 they settle on Lake Texcoco where they establish their capitol of Tenochititlan, in 1428 they form the Triple Alliance with neighboring tribe, gain control of the region, by the 1500's they control an empire of 10 million people, they demanded tribute payments from the tribes they dominate
What was the social pyramid of the Aztecs?
Warrior King, Nobles/Soliders, Priests, Commoners/Farmers, Prisoners of War/Slaves
What was the capitol city of the Aztecs?
Capitol of the Aztecs, 400,000 people, bigger than any European city of its time, and wide-stone causeways united the city to the mainland
Describe the god of the Aztecs
Polytheistic, priests perform rituals to please the gods, Huitzilopochili is the chief god, human sacrifice, victims were prisoners of war
Describe the religious ceremonies of the Aztecs
People would grab the victim and place them on an altar, then the priest would cut into the chest and remove the heart of the victim
Why did the Aztecs practice human sacrifice?
They believed that if human sacrifice was not performed Huitzilopochili would not be able to perform war against night
Where did the Aztecs get their sacrificial victims?
Aztec sacrificial victims were prisoners of war
What role did the Great Temple serve in religious ceremonies?
The Great Temple was believed to be the origin of the sun and solar system and was important in sacrifice
Who is Montezuma II?
Ruler of the Aztec people in 1502, empire weakened under him
Why did numerous provinces throughout the Aztec rebel?
Montezuma demanded larger amounts of sacrifices
How did man Aztecs view the negative events occurring throughout the empire?
They viewed it as bad omen and a signal that things were going to set nurse
What is the most valuable trade item to the Aztecs?
What other major achievements did the Aztecs produce?
Writing and math
How was Tenochititlan founded according to legend?
A eagle with a snake in its mouth landed on a cactus
What was Pachacuti?
Ruler of the Inca in 1438, conquered all of Peru, built up a large military force, clever diplomat, allowed nations to keep their own customs and ruler in exchange for loyalty, united Andean people
What is Cuzco?
Capitol of the Inca, splendid city of temples, palaces, and plazas, home to the temple of the sun, gold facade on buildings
What is Ayllu?
Community groups of extended families, ayllu formed tasks as a group, land was owned communally, obligation to aid fellow ayllu members, a chief led each group
What is Mita?
Peasants were drafted to work for the state for certain number of days per year, provided labor for the nobles and religious leaders, they worked on roads, irrigation projects government took care of old, poor, and sick
What is Quipu?
System of cards and knots to keep track of data
What is Machu Picchu?
Sacred city of the Inca, located high in the Andes Mountains
What is Atahualpa?
Last Incan emperor, captured by the Spanish and held for ransom, Spanish received 24 tons of gold and silver to secure his release, Spanish killed him anyway, threatened with being burned at the stake, opted to be strangled in exchange for converting to Christianity
How did the geography of South America pose an obstacle to political unity?
The geography of South America was hard to navigate and make roads connecting peoples
What role did the mita system serve in building the Incan Empire?
The mita system created the places for Incan agriculture and ultimately food supply, trade good were produced, and all public projects were worked on such as roads.
What was the purpose of the Incan road system?
Messaging, trade, and troop movement throughout the empire
What is the time period of Incan civilization?
What is the mother culture of South America?
How was trade managed in Incan society?
Government controlled all trade, main source of provided goods, no private trade was conducted, the king was a direct descendant of the sun god- Inti
Did the Incas have an official language?
Who assisted priests?
Manakuma "Virgins of the Sun", the priests focused on native gods Moon, Sun, Thunder, etc
What did the Incan king receive as a gift that was considered a bad omen?
A box full of moths, the king died three weeks later of smallpox
What happened after the kings death?
The empire was split among his sons
What did the sons do?
Wage war on each other, Atahualpa won and drank the blood out of his brothers head
How did the Inca empire fall?
Civil war weakened the empire, the Spanish defeat the Inca
How did the Incan government monitor the Incan people?
People were elected to serve as heads of families, the head of the family would report back to others what the family was doing
How did the Incan government ensure that the basic needs of all people were met?
The Incan gave farmland to different groups of people equally so each group received some of the crops
How was the Incan Emperor treated? What does this say about his power?
The Incan Emperor was treated like a god, he had several servants, lavish items, everything he touched was kept in a chest until it was burned. It showed he had absolute power over the Incan people