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Micro 1-4

STUDY
PLAY
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first to.....
View protozoa and bacteria
Microbes that can live in the presence or absence of an oxygen are called
Facultative anaerobes
Name 5 characteristics of fungi
1. eukaryotes, 2. mold from hyphae, 3. have a cell wall, 4. are unicellular.... 5. they are NOT photosynthetic.
5 characteristics of a virus
1. they are acellular, 2. they are composed of genetic material and protein, 3. they are smaller than prokaryotic cells, 4. they are obligatory parasites, 5. they are NOT visible under a light microscope
The first true vaccine protected against a _______ pathogen
Viral
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of what type of microbe?
Fungus
Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of......
genetic engineering
Are protozoa single or multi cellular?
Single
Epidemiology
The study of occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease
Biotechnology
The use of microbes in the manufacture of usefull products
Bioremediation
The use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments
Serology
The study of the blood components that fight infection
Biochemistry
The study of the chemical reactions associated with living things
T/F.... Christian Gram devised a staining technique that divides all bacteria into two groups
True
T/F....The production of human blood clotting factor by E.coli is an example of bioremediation
F
T/F..... Gene therapy is a modern approach to preventing infectious disease
F
Can fermentation occur in the absence of living cells?
Yes
Microbes that move by means of cilia are
Ciliates
A cell that contains a nucleus is called....
Eukaryotic
Microbes that cause infectious disease are called
Pathogens
Bacteria that can live without oxygen are termed
Anerobes
What term synonymous with immunization, is derived from the latin name of the cowpox virus?
Vaccination
Cellular organelles and viruses are generally measured in
Nanometers
The ability of a lens to gather light is referred to as its
numerical aperture (wavelength + resolution)
Name two types of magnifying lenses
Objective and Ocular
Why does immersion oil improve resolution?
It increases numerical aperture and maintains a uniform light speed
The microscope freferred for viewing living specimens is the
Phase-contrast
Name four types of light microscopes
fluorescent, confocal, phase-contrast and bright field
Which of the following microscopes produces the highest resolution images?
atomic force
If a microbiology lab tech. left the safranin out of the gram stain procedure what would be the result?
Gram-positive cells would be purple, and Gram negative cells would be colorless.
Name four components common to both the Gram-stain and the acid -fast stain
Primary stain, counterstain, a decolorizing agent and a counterstain. (a mordant is NOT common to both procedures)
A patient suffering from t.b. could be diagnosed by use of the _________ stain
Acid fast
Name two staining procedures that use heat to drive the stain in.
Acid fast and endospore stains.
Carbolfuchsin is the ________ in the acid fast stain.
Primary stain
Name four components af electron microscopy stains
tungsten, lead, uranium and osmium....... Eosin is NOT
The rules of naming organisms are called
Nomenclature
Carl Woese proposed the concept of the domain based on differences of which cellular molecules?
Ribosomal RNA
Which classification method relies on the morphology of organisms?
physical characteristics
a cells G+C ratio is associated with which classification method?
analysis of nucleic acids
Name four components associated with smear preparation
spreading the specimen onto the slide, fixation using heat, killing the microbes in the specimen and fixation using methanol or formalin. .....NOT agglutination of the specimen
What are the three domains proposed by Carl Woese?
Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya
Can the Gram stain be used to distingguish bacteria based of the structure of their cell walls?
Yes
Do acid-fast cells such as Mycobacterium lose the color of the primary stain in the presence of hydrochloric acid?
Yes
Which refracts more, light rays passed through the edge of a curved lens, or those which pass through the center?
The edge
What particle found in the nucleus of an atom has no electrical charge?
Neutron
An atom that has 6 protons and 7 neutrons is called?
Isotope
When is an atom electrically neutral?
when it has an equal number of electrons and protons.
which parts of the atoms interact in a chemical reaction?
Electrons
The valence of an atom represents
its ability to interact with other atoms
the type of bond produced when atoms share electrons equally is
a nonpolar covalent bond
The type of bond produced when atoms with significantly different electronegativities share electrons is
a polar covalent bond
what are associated with ionic bonds?
cations, electrolytes, salts and anions...... NOT radioactivity.
Compounds that readily dissociate in water are
either polar or ionic
The reverse of a dehydration syntheses reaction is a
hydrolytic reaction
an acid dissociates in water to release
both anions and cations
which PH would be alkaline?
8.0... PH with numbers lower than 7 are acidic, while PH with higher numbers are basic or alkaline.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of phoshpolipids
they contain fatty acids that associate with water.
Fats, proteins and complex carbohydrates are all produced by
dehydration synthesis
What is a false statement about proteins
Their primary function is energy storage
All of the following are components of amino acid except
A pentose group
Which of the following is not found in proteins?
purines
Which of the following are examples of pyrimidines?
cytosine and thymine
The "spine" of the DNA molecule is composed of
alternating phosphates and pentoses
Which of the following statements concerning nucleic acids is FALSE?
the nucleic acid polymer is composed of peptide bonds
An increase in the PH of a solution by 2 whole numbers represents a change in the number of hydrogen ions by what factor?
100
Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of:
responsiveness
Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?
tubulin
Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
both fimbriae and glycocalyces
A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of
Positive Phototaxis
Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?
Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin
Which of the following is not a component of bacterial cell walls?
tubulin
Lipid A is also known as
endotoxin
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
the absence of a cell wall
Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?
During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
both active and transport and group translocation
when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called?
crenation
One lipid found in eukaryotes but NOT in procakaryotes is
???
Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?
both facilitated diffusion and active transport
which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?
mycolic acid
True or False: Peroxisomes contain enzymes used to digest nutrients that have been brought into the cell through phagocytosis
False
True of False; The process of facilitated diffusion requires an input of energy
False
True or False: The golgi body prepares cellular products for export
True