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Human Development Through the Lifespan Exam 1
Terms in this set (172)
The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time
Five Basic Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Begin with Curiosity
2. Develop a Hypothesis
3. Test the Hypothesis
4. Draw Conclusions
5. Report the Results
What is Nature?
Influence of genes we inherit
What is Nurture?
Environment influences that affect development
What are Epigenetics?
How environment factors affect genes and genetic expression (your height at one point was for your survival)
What is Differential Susceptibility?
How environmental experiences differ because of particular inherited genes (ovarian cancer, genetic)
What are the 3 Domains of Human Development?
Biological development, Cognitive development, and psychological development
What age is Infancy?
0-2 years old (24 months)
What is the age of early childhood?
2-6 years old
What is the age of middle childhood?
6-11 years old
What is the age of Adolescence?
11-18 years old
What are the ages for emerging adulthood?
18-25 years old
What are the ages of Adulthood?
25-65 years old
What are the ages of Late Adulthood?
65 years old and older
Major theorists in development?
Freud, Erickson, Piaget
What does it mean in that over time, human characteristics change in every direction?
Development is multi-directional
Others view development as a _______________ process
What are the 5 different patterns of developmental growth?
Growth and Decline
Growth in Stages
What is the critical period?
Time when certain things must occur for normal development (things like learning to feed yourself, track growth and abnormalities show problems)
What is the sensitive period?
Time when a particular development occurs most easily (easier to ride a bike when your'e younger)
True or False: Development is multi-contextual
What is a cohort?
a group of people born at around the same time in the same place (80's baby, baby boomers)
What ecological systems approach was created by who?
What is the ecological systems approach? What was it later named?
-That each person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions
-3 layer model
-later named bioecological theory
What are the two contexts that make development multi-contextual?
Socioeconomic and historical contexts
What is socioeconomic context?
Socioeconomic status (SES): Income, wealth, occupation, education, and neighborhood
What is culture?
System of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors, and expectations that persist over time and prescribe social behavior
What is social construction?
Based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality (Maryville: everyone had IPads, at one time they didn't)
What is the difference-equals-deficit error?
That humans tend to believe that they, their nation, and their culture are a little better than others.
-beliefs become destructive if it reduces respect and appreciation for other
-differences may be assets or deficits
Who focused on learning within a culture?
What did Vygotsky study?
Studied children, and described interaction between culture and education
What is guided participation?
Universal process used by mentors to teach cultural knowledge, skills, and habits (if you grew up with parents that drank a lot of water, you'll drink a lot of water)
What is ethnicity?
Social construction - affected by social context, not a direct outcome of biology
What is an ethnic group?
Consists of people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion.
What is race?
Social construction that continues to lead to racism
The life-span perspective overlaps what three things?
Ethnicity, Race, and Culture
What does it mean that development is plastic? And incorporates what two facts?
Plasticity is basic to a contemporary understanding of human development.
1. People can change over time
2. New behavior depends partly on what has already happened
What is dynamic systems approach?
Suggests human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between body and mind and between the individual and every aspect of the environment?
What does the dynamic systems approach highlight?
Highlights how developmental change has always occured
What is developmental theory?
-Systematic statement of principles and generalizations
-framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
What was the psychoanalytic theory?
Proposes that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
Who was the first psychoanalyst?
How many psychosexual stages are there?
Psychosexual stages are linked to ____________? Suggests early conflict resolution ______________ ________________ ______________?
-Developmental needs and conflicts
-determines personality pattern
What did Erik Erikson do?
Added three adult stages to build onto Freud's 5 sexual stages
Who influenced behaviorism?
Pavlov, Watson, Skinner
What is learning theory?
Focuses on observable behavior and describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
What is conditioning?
Proposes that learning takes place through processes by whatcha responses become linked to particular stimuli
What was John Watson?
-One of the earliest proponents of behaviorism and learning theory
-Thought one should study only what they could observe and measure
-proposed anything can be learned through behavior
What is classical conditioning?
Learning by association
Learning based on the consequences of responding.
Inspired by Pavlov and was best known for experiments with rats, pigeons, and his own daughter
What is the social learning theory?
Extension of behaviorism that emphasizes that other people influence each person's behavior (modeling)
First described social learning theory, doll experiment
What is cognitive theory?
Proposes thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions, attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions
focuses on changes in how people think over time
What are the four stages of cognitive development
3. Concrete operational
4 formal operational
What is assimilation?
Experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas (babies grasping new objects like similar ones - Modify and conform)
What is accommodation?
Old ideas are restructured to include or accommodate, new experiences (welcome new ways or people)
What is Humanism?
Stresses the potential all human beings have to be good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless or culture or gender.
Who is Abraham Maslow?
A founder of humanism, arranged common human needs in a hierarchy, and contended that everyone must satisfy each lower level before moving higher
What are the five steps for Human Development?
1. Physiological - basic survival (food, drink, shelter)
2. Safe and Secure - being protected and defended
3. Love and Belonging - being loved as partner, family, group
4. Esteem - being respected, successful, and admired
5. Self-Actualization - becoming you unique and wonderful self
What is evolutionary theory?
Suggests that organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioral traits.
Who is Charles Darwin?
Theorized nature works to ensure that each species does two things: survive and reproduce
What is scientific observation?
Researcher record behavior systematically and objectively, can be conducted in a naturalistic setting or a laboratory?
What are Experiments?
Establish casual relationships among variables
What are the two types of variables, and which one changes?
Independent and dependent Variable (change the IV - independent variable changes while we change for the dependent variable to change)
What are the two groups in an experiment?
Experimental group (gets treatment) and comparison group (control group)
What are some statistical measures often used in research analysis?
What is a survey?
Includes information collected from a large number of people through interviews, questionnaire, or some other means
Challenges in surveys?
-acquiring valid survey data is not easy
-some people lie, change their minds
-Survey answers are influenced by the wording and the sequence of the questions
Three basic research designs?
Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential research
Total Time: A few days, plus analysis
Total Time: 61 years, plus analysis
Total Time: 61 years, plus double and triple analysis
When does correlation exist? And type of correlation are there?
It exists when two variables if one variable is more (or less) likely to occur when the other does
(Positive, negative, or zero correlation)
True or False: Correlation is not causation
All living things are composed of _________ that promotes growth and sustain life according to instructions in their molecules of DNA
What is DNA/
-Molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins
-promotes growth and sustains life
What are chromosomes?
Molecules of DNA
How many chromosomes in a human being?
46 chromosomes, 23 pairs
What is a zygote?
Two gametes (sperm and ovum) combine and produce a new individual with 23 chromosomes from each parents
What are gametes?
Reproductive cells (sperm and ova)
How many chromosomes are in each gamete?
How are proteins made?
Cell has a nucleus, nucleus has 23 pairs of chromosomes, chromosome has DNA molecule, and DNA molecule is made up of genes
What is methylation?
A process when when the DNA and RNA surrounding the gene enhances, transcribes, connects, empowers, silences, regulates, and alters genes
What are small variations, mutations, or repetitions is the base pairs or triplets called?
Copy number variations
What is a genotype?
An organism's genetic inheritance, or genetic potential (unique for each organism)
What is a phenotype?
The observable characteristics of an organism, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits. (What you see)
Many genes are _______________ for every human being
What is an allele?
Any of the possible forms of a gene
What are some effects of alleles?
Vary from life-threatening conditions to having no detectable effect at all
What are polymorphic genes?
Genes with various alleles (many forms)
What is a heterozygous person?
If the allele of a particular gene from the father differs from the allele of that gene from the mother
What is genetic diversity?
It distinguishes each person and allows the human species to adapt to pressures of the environment (climate changes, illnesses)
What is a genome?
The full set of genes - that are the instructions (DNA) to make an individual member of a species
Human Genome Project
Finding genes in human and the exact number is still unknown (~20,000-23,000)
The 23rd pair
XX - girl
XY - male
What are monozygotic twins?
Originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in the development
What are dizygotic twins?
Result from fertilization of two separate ova by two separate sperm
What percent of pregnancies experience the vanishing twin phenomenon?
Almost every trait is every ____________ or ___________?
Polygenic or multifactorial
What is a polygenic trait?
Affected by many genes
What is a multifactorial trait?
Influenced by many factors
What are regulator genes?
They direct the interaction of other genes, controlling their genetic expression, duplication, and transcription
Genes that contribute to the phenotype, usually with other additive genes
What is the dominant-recessive pattern?
The interaction of a pair of genes in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one (dominant gene) more then that of the other (the recessive gene)
What is a carrier?
Person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype?
Unexpressed gene occurs in ______ of the carrie'rs Galatea and is passed on to _____ of the carrier's offspring
Half and half
What is the phenotype and genotype of XX?
Phenotype: Normal Woman
Genotype: Not a Carrier
What is the phenotype and genotype of XY?
Phenotype: Normal Male
Genotype: Normal X from the mother
What is the phenotype and genotype of X(X)?
Phenotype: normal woman
Genotype: Carrier from the father
What is the phenotype and genotype of (X)X?
Phenotype: Normal women
Genotype: Carrier from the mother
What is the phenotype and genotype of (X)Y?
Phenotype: Colorblind man
Genotype: Inherited from mother
What is the phenotype and genotype of (X)(X)?
Phenotype: Color-blind woman (rare)
Genotype: Inherited from both parents
What is a X-linked recessive disorder?
A genetic disorder of the X chromosome.
What are the 3 main periods of prenatal development and lengths?
Germinal period (first 14 days), embryonic period (end of 2nd week to 8th week), and fetal period (9th week until birth)
What is differentiation?
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
What are stem cells?
Cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form
-Zygote begins duplication and division within hours of conception
-development of the placenta
-implantation (after 10 days)
-organism grows rapidly
What is implantation?
When the developing organism burrows into the tissue that lines the uterus, where it will be nourished
-primitive streak becomes the neural tube and later forms the brain and spine of the CNS
-Head takes shape
-Heart begins to pulsate
-Eyes, eats, nose, and mouth form
-extremities develop and weeded fingers and toes seperate
What is an embryo?
Name for a developing human organism from 2-8 weeks of conception
-genitals form and sex hormones cause difference in fetal brain organization
-@ 3 months, weighs 3 oz
- greatest brain growth in 4,5,6th months
What is a sonogram?
An image of a fetus (or an internal organ) produced by using high-frequency sound waves (also called ultrasound)
What is a fetus?
Name for developing human from 9th week to birth
What is the age of viability?
22 weeks (brain is able to regulate body function and baby can survive outside uterus)
How many weeks is full term?
How does labor begin?
Fetal brain signals the release of hormones to trigger the female's uterine muscles
What is the average duration of labor?
What is the apgar scale?
Quick assessment of newborn's heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes
What is the apgar scale completed?
1. 1 minute after birth
2. 5 minutes after birth
What is the desired score on an apgar scale?
7 or above
What a Cesarean Section (c-section)?
-fetus can be removed quickly
-usually safe for mother and baby, saving lives when the fetal head is too large for the pelvis
What is the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale?
Test often administered to newborns that measures responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, 20 reflexes
What is a reflex?
A reflex is an automatic response that does not involve a message from the brain.
Postpartum depression ranges from _____________ to ______________.
Baby blues to Postpartum psychosis
What is couvade?
Symptoms of pregnancy and birth experienced by fathers
What is the most common chromosomal miscount condition?
Down Syndrome (Trisomy-21) - (47 chromosomes instead of 46)
1 in every _______ infants are born with only one sex chromosome (no Y) or with 3 or more
African Americans = ________________ Northern Europeans = _____________
1. Sickle Cell Disease
2. Cystic Fibrous
What is a genetic condition that involves the X chromosomes and that causes slow development?
Fragile X Syndrome
What are teratogens?
Any agent or condition, including viruses, drugs, and chemicals, that can impair prenatal developments resulting in birth defects or complications
What are behavioral teratogens?
Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning (smoking, drinking, drugs)
What is the critical period?
-first days and weeks are critical for body formation
-final months are important for body weight
-health during the entire fetal period is important for brain development
What is the threshold effect?
A situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold)
What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
Serious birth defects caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy (abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and intellectual disabilities)q
What is genetic vulnerability?
-males fetuses are more vulnerable to teratogens than females
-neural-tube defects are more components in certain ethnic groups (Irish, English, and Egyptian)
What is cerebral palsy?
A disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers. People with cerebral palsy have difficulty with muscle control, so their speech and/or body movements are impaired.
What is anoxia?
A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death.
What is the appropriate weight gain?
What is an example of prenatal testing?
Alpha-Fetaprotein (AFP) test
What is a false positive?
The result of a test that suggests an abnormality that is not present and switched for false negative.
If dead before 22 weeks they are referred to as _________________ and after they are referred to as ________________.
2. Born dead
What is considered Preterm?
Birth at 35 weeks or before
low birth weight (LBW)
a birth weight of less than 5 1/2 pounds (2500 grams)
very low birthweight (VLBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (1,500 grams).
extremely low birthweight (ELBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds, 3 ounces (1,000 grams).
What is small for gestational age (SGA)? What is it also called?
Birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception
-suggests impairment throughout prenatal development and serious problems
Also called (small-for-dates)
Maternal behavior causing low birthweight
-Maternal health and illness
-Maternal drug use before and during pregnancy
What is immigrant paradox?
The surprising fact that immigrants tend to be healthier than U.S. born residents of the same ethnicity. This was first evident in Mexican Americans.
Consequences of low birth infants and children
-every developmental accomplishment is late
-cry more, pay attention less, disobey more, and experience language and developmental outcome delays
Middle childhood, formerly SGA children have...
More neurological problems, smaller brain volume
What two things affect the risk for alcoholism?
1. Biological sex (XX or XY)
2. Gender (cultural)
Alcoholics are created by the combination of ______ and ______.
Nature and nurture
Another word for Nearsightedness?
Nearsightedness is associated in the ________ gene?
What is heritability?
A statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a trait within a population, in a particular context and era, can be traced to genes.
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