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Exam 1 study guide
Terms in this set (50)
DeAndre is recording instances of physical aggression among children in a schoolyard at recess. He is undertaking ______.
Paul records data that indicate that the number of hot chocolates sold at a concession stand increases as temperature outside decreases. (For example, more hot chocolates are purchased during late fall than late spring.) Which statement is the MOST accurate depiction of this finding?
There is a high, positive correlation between the two variables.
In the survey project she is working on, Dr. Miyake finds a correlation of .60 between attachment security and the likelihood with which participants say they would engage in various prosocial behaviors at work. This could mean any of the following EXCEPT this:
Attachment security and prosocial behavior are unrelated
Which of the following is NOT an operational definition of happiness?
a feeling of joy or contentment
In an experimental test of the effects of Vitamin B-12 on problem-solving performance, ______ is the independent variable, and ______ is the dependent variable.
the vitamin; problem-solving performance
As part of her master's thesis work, Amy is conducting a survey of dating attitudes and behaviors among young adults. She first distributes questionnaires to 200 randomly selected students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at her university. The 200 students constitute Amy's ______. The people to whom she assumes her results will generalize are termed the ______.
The director of a community health organization reads that about 1,300 new cases of HIV infection are expected in her city in the coming year. This statement illustrates an epidemiological statistic called ______.
Dr. DiLorenzo is performing statistical analyses to combine the results of a number of studies investigating the relationship between day care quality and developmental outcomes among children aged 2 to 4. Dr. DiLorenzo is conducting a ______.
Which sequence BEST reflects the order of the stages in the general process of science, as it is outlined at the beginning of the chapter on research methods in your textbook?
expectation > experimentation > inference
Irving has noticed a pattern: The more alcohol people drink, the more aggressive they seem to be. Which research method would aim at verifying the relationship between these two variables?
A stroke damages a portion of Val's brain immediately anterior to the central sulcus. Val is MOST likely to experience difficulty with ______.
With respect to a neuron, sending is to receiving as ______ is to ______.
When cocaine molecules are active in a synapse, they inhibit the reuptake of dopamine. This means that cocaine molecules
prevent dopamine from being recycled by the first or "sending" neuron
Which statement is FALSE concerning glutamate?
Glutamate is an inhibitory neurotransmitter
The morning alarm tone on Howie's phone begins softly, then becomes louder. As the sound's volume increases, the action potentials occurring in Howie's auditory cortex become more ______.
Shasta is participating in an electroencephalography (EEG). The EEG reveals delta activity in Shasta's brain. Shasta is MOST likely ______.
Which method do scientists use when they study evoked potentials (EPs)?
With respect to psychopathy, the textbook suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be especially useful in the investigation of ______.
As compared with electroencephalography (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging's (fMRI) spatial resolution is ______, and its temporal resolution is ______
In the brain, the ______ network monitors the body's internal state and notes critical changes.
With respect to the brain's networks, daydreaming is to planning as the ______ network is to the ______ network.
default; central executive
Information presented in the textbook suggests that the central executive network is centered in the brain's ______ lobe.
The MAOA gene is located on the ______ chromosome and is associated with ______.
Pamela and Paula are sisters. Both have brown eyes. Pamela, however, inherited a "brown-eyed" allele from her mother and a "blue-eyed" one from her father, whereas Paula inherited "brown-eyed" alleles from both parents. Pamela's alleles may be described as ______, whereas Paula's may be described as ______.
One can clearly see Sandra's red hair. This observable characteristic is part of Sandra's ______.
In ______ inheritance, environmental factors that influence gene activity may be passed from one generation to the next.
In a classic study of inheritance among rat mothers and pups, specific epigenetic effects were found in the ______ of the rats' brains.
In what way does mitochondrial DNA violate the classic principles of Mendelian inheritance?
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother.
The textbook reports research showing that people with autism had fewer connections between brain areas than did siblings or controls. Which neuroscientific technique might a researcher use if she wished to replicate this finding?
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
An endophenotype is a(n)
process that lies between a genotype and a phenotype
The correlational approach
helps determine how specific factors are statistically related to each other
______ analysis examines multiple generations of the same family to identify associations between specific genes and particular traits.
Naturalistic observation does NOT allow researchers to
isolate cause-and-effect relationships
With respect to variables, manipulated is to measured as ______ variable is to ______ variable.
Which statement MOST accurately captures the historical trend in research exploring the connection between genetics and psychopathology?
Researchers have moved from seeking the specific genes involved in psychological disorders to investigating the endophenotypes that may be involved.
Different laboratories using different participants have confirmed that persons with schizophrenia show enlarged ventricles in the brain. This statement MOST clearly supports the value of ______ in research.
Kiran selects 12 participants with bipolar disorder. Kiran's population is MOST likely ______.
people with bipolar disorder
Which method is LEAST appropriate when one is first learning about a phenomenon and wishes mainly to observe and describe it?
In its discussion of designing an experimental study, the textbook notes that a design must provide a logical structure allowing researchers to (1) isolate the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable and (2) eliminate alternative explanations for the findings. These functions refer, respectively, to the ______ hypothesis and the ______ hypothesis.
Which statement is FALSE concerning longitudinal designs?
Longitudinal research may be completed quickly.
As compared with prevalence, lifetime prevalence is ______.
Aditi is statistically combining the results of all the studies that have examined the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for individuals experiencing borderline personality disorder. Aditi is MOST likely performing a(n) ______.
In an experiment examining the effect of playing music on brain activity, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements of neuronal activity are MOST likely a(n) ______ variable.
Because demand characteristics and experimenter effects may operate as unintended independent variables, they may be considered ______ variables
Dr. Kramer predicts that lower family incomes are associated with a higher prevalence of schizophrenia. Dr. Kramer's expectation is an example of a(n) ______.
In inferential statistics, the characteristics of the ______ are inferred from those of the ______.
______ validity refers to the extent to which an experiment's findings may be generalized to other people and situations.
There is MOST likely a ______ correlation between scores on an extraversion measure and number of social media friends or followers. Assume that higher scores on the extraversion measure indicate greater extraversion.
The experimental method enables psychologists to
isolate cause-and-effect relationships
As compared with physical harm to research participants, psychological harm is BEST described as ______.
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