5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
- Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (THS)
- Pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma
- Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
- Diabetes Mellitus
- a Anterior Pituitary. Increases skin pigmentation
- b Parathyroid gland. Also called Parathormone. Targets bones, kidneys, and intestine. Increases blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclast activity, increases phosphate release from bone but also increases excretion in the kidney to decrease blood phosphate levels.
- c Results from inadequate secretion of insulin or inability of tissues to respond to insulin. Type I or IDDM (insulin dependent) develops in young people resulting from diminished insulin secretion. Type II or NIDDM (non-insulin dependent) develops in people older than 40-45 and is more common (obesity), results from the inability of tissues to respond to insulin.
- d Disorders of the adrenal medulla that are tumors. Result of exvessive production of epinephrine and roepinephrine. Symptoms are high blood pressure, sweating, nervousness, pallor, and tachycardia (rapid heart rate).
- e Anterior Pituitary. Also called Thyrotropin. Causes release of thyroid hormones from thyroid gland. Controlled by TRH from hypothalamus and thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland
5 Multiple choice questions
- Exocrine and endocrine. Endocrine part consists of pancreatic islets each of which is composed of alpha, beta, and delta cells. Secretes Glucagon, Insulin, and Somatostatin.
- Anterior Pituitary. Both hormones regulate production of gametes and reproductive hormones. Testosterone in males. Estrogen and progesterone in females. GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates their secretion
- Zona fasciculata, Cortisol is major hormone that increases fat and protein breakdown, increases glucose synthesis, anti-inflammatory response (cortosone shot!)
- Epinephrine- (increases blood glucose levels, fat breakdown in adipose tissue releasing fatty acids into the blood) and norepinephrine. Both increase heart rate and force of contraction and cause blood vessels to constrict. Prepare individual for physical activity. Short half-life.
- Include Triiodothryronine or T3 and Tetraiodothyronine or T4 or thyroxine. Transported in blood. Bind with intracellular receptor molecules and initiate new protein synthesis. Increase rate of glucose, fat, protein metabolism in many tissues thus increasing body temperature. Normal growth of many tissues dependent on thyroid hormones. Calcitonin from parafollicular cells reduces blood calcium levels
5 True/False questions
Somatostatin → Posterior Pitutitary. Associated with pregnancy and birth. Promotes uterine contractions during delivery. Causes milk ejection in lactating women by stimulating smooth muscle-like cells associated with the alveoli of mammary glands. Also associated with the contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus during menses and sexual intercourse. Stretch of the uterus, mechanical stimulation of the cervix, and stimulation of the breast nipples as in nursing stimulates oxytocin secretion. Not much is known about the effects of oxytocin in males
Antidiuretic Hormone → Posterior Pituitary. Also called vasopressin, promotes water retention by kidneys. Secretion rate changes in response to alterations in blood osmolality and blood volume. Lack of ADH secretion is a cause of diabetes insipidus
Interleukin-2 → Hormone like substance known to stimulate T lymphocyte production
Lipotropins → Anterior Pituitary. Cause fat breakdown and release of fatty acids into circulatory system
Hypothyroidism → Decreased metabolic rate, Weight gain, reduced appetite, Dry and cold skin, Weak, flabby skeletal muscles, sluggish, Myxedema, Apathetic, somnolent, Coarse hair, rough dry skin, Decreased iodide uptake, Possible goiter, Cretinism