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Physical Science Honors Periodic Table

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Rows
called periods (periodic table)
Columns
Called families (periodic table)
Dmitri Mendeleev, Lothar Meyer
independently published periodic table of the elements in 1868
Based on increasing atomic weights and arranged so elements with similar properties were in the same column.
How the was the periodic table arranged?
undiscovered elements
What were the left over spaces for?
Henry Moseley
Rearranged the periodic table in order of atomic number; determined the number of positive charges in the nucleus - became the concept of atomic number
Symbol
A one or two letter abbreviation derived from the element's English or Latin name
Name
located right below symbol
Mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in a specific isotope
Atomic number
Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus, as well as the number of electrons in the electron cloud
Atomic Mass
Weighted average of the masses of all the element's isotopes. Rounding the atomic mass to the nearest whole number yields the mass number of the most common isotope
Bohr Diagram
Similar to Bohr's model where the electrons orbit around the nucleus in circular orbits.
look at the atomic number
How do you find the number of electrons in a Bohr Diagram?
2
How many electrons can be held in the 1st energy level?
8
How many electrons can be held in the 2nd energy level?
18
How many electrons can be held in the 3rd energy level?
Valence Electrons
in the outermost energy level
Dot diagram
a model of an atom that shows the chemical symbol and number of valence electrons only
Rows
represent the number of energy levels (on periodic table)
Columns
represent the number of valence electrons (on periodic table)
Physical Property of Metals
Luster (shininess)
Physical Properties of Metals
Good conductors of heat and electricity
Physical Properties of Metals and Metalloids
Ductile (can be drawn into thin wires)
Physical Properties of Metals and Metalloids
Malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets)
Chemical Properties of Metals
Easily Lose electrons
Chemical Properties of Metals
Corrode Easily. Corrosion is a gradual reaction with substances in the air. It results in the loss of the element.
Physical Properties of Nonmetals
No Luster (dull)
Physical Properties of Nonmetals
Poor conductor of heat and electricity
Physical Properties of Nonmetals
Brittle (breaks easily)
Physical Properties of Nonmetals
Not Ductile
Physical Properties of Nonmetals
Not malleable
Chemical Properties of Nonmetals
Tend to gain electrons
Metalloids
Elements on both sides of the zigzag line have properties of both metals and nonmetals
Physical Properties of Metalloids
Solids
Physical Properties of Metalloids
Can be shiny or dull
Physical Properties of Metalloids
Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals
Alkali Metals
1st Column of periodic table; Extremely reactive solids - never found uncombined in nature , must be stored under oil to keep them from reacting with the air; 1 valence electron
Alkaline Earth Metals
2nd column of the periodic table; slightly less active than Alkali Metals - still highly reactive; Like the Alkali Metals most need to be stored under oil; not found free in nature; 2 valence electrons
Transition Elements
Middle block; Properties are similar to one another and other metals, but different from other elements; form brightly colored compounds used in paint and ceramic glaze pigments; valance electrons vary but most have 1-3
Halogens
Highly reactive; Chlorine and fluorine are gases; bromine is a liquid; iodine and astatine are solids; iodine undergoes sublimation from a solid to a gas; 7 valence electrons
Noble Gases
Non-reactive; all are gases and are found in small amounts in the atmosphere; 8 valence electrons (Helium has 2)
Ianthanoids
Shiny and silvery-white; tarnish easily when exposed to air; react violently with most nonmetals; relatively soft; located at the bottom of the table
Actinoids
All elements past Uranium (92) are synthetic - made in a lab; Most are radioactive - unstable nuclei
Carbon
nonmetal; exists in several forms: graphite, diamond, Buckyballs - based on the arrangements of its atoms; also contained in most of the molecules needed for life; 4 valence electrons