Sociology Exam 1
Definition of Sociology
Social relationships and the way people interact and shape society
Stresses the social contexts in which people live
A group of people who share a culture and a territory
Corners people occupy because of their location
Requires theories that can be tested by research
Using objective, systematic observations to test theories
Positivism (Auguste Comte)
Applying the scientific method to the social world
Who came up with the name "Sociology"
Who came up with the concept that societies evolve from lower to higher forms?
Survival of the Fittest
Engine of Human History
Is Marxism the same as communism?
Emile Durkheim's goal
To show how social forces affect people's behavior
The degree to which people are tied to their social group
Durkheim's central principle
Human behavior cannot be understood only in terms of the individual; we must always examine the social forces that affect people's lives
Using sociology to solve problems
General Statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
Three major sociology theories
Symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and conflict theory
How people use symbols
Society is a whole unit made up of parts that work together
Examining large scale patterns
Examining what people do in another's presence.
Examines small-scale patterns of social interaction
Gestures, silence, and use of space
Members from your target population
A feeling of trust with respondents
Researches analyze data others have collected
The variable that might change
Something that causes a change in another variable
Observing the behavior of people who don't know that are being studied
Sociologist should not allow beliefs to affect research
Repeating a study in order to compare the new results with the original findings
the language, beliefs, values, and norms that are passed from generation to generation
Jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, and machines
A groups way of thinking - values
a tendency to use our own ways of doing things as a yardstick for judging others
trying to understand a culture on its own terms
something to which people attach meaning and use for communication
Movements of the body used for communication with others
Language determines our consciousness
What's desirable in life
Expectations concerning the right way to reflect values
Expresses approval for following a norm
Reflects disapproval for breaking a norm
History and biography
What were the two elements C. Wright Mills identified as being the key to understanding the sociological imagination?
The idea of applying the scientific method to the social world, which was first proposed by Auguste Comte, is called
What world event most inspired the development of sociology?
the Industrial Revolution
second father of sociology
What term did Emile Durkheim use for the degree to which people are tied to their social groups?
What term did sociologist Max Weber use to refer to the self-denying approach to life?
the Protestant Ethic
The woman who translated Auguste Comte's works into English
Robert Merton referred to the unintended consequences of a system that helps it adjust and aid the overall working of society as a[n]
Norms which are not strictly enforced, such as eating habits in the student dining hall and a relaxed dress code for attending class are referred to as
A society made up of many different groups with no single group having dominance over the others is called a ____________ society.
The sociologist who identified 12 core values shared by many groups in American society was ____________.