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Sociology Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Definition of Sociology
Social relationships and the way people interact and shape society
Sociological perspective
Stresses the social contexts in which people live
Society
A group of people who share a culture and a territory
Social Location
Corners people occupy because of their location
Science
Requires theories that can be tested by research
Scientific Method
Using objective, systematic observations to test theories
Positivism (Auguste Comte)
Applying the scientific method to the social world
Who came up with the name "Sociology"
Auguste Comte
Who came up with the concept that societies evolve from lower to higher forms?
Herbert Spencer
Survival of the Fittest
Herbert Spencer
Social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer
Class Conflict
Engine of Human History
Is Marxism the same as communism?
No.
Emile Durkheim's goal
To show how social forces affect people's behavior
Social Integration
The degree to which people are tied to their social group
Durkheim's central principle
Human behavior cannot be understood only in terms of the individual; we must always examine the social forces that affect people's lives
Applied Sociology
Using sociology to solve problems
Theory
General Statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
Three major sociology theories
Symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and conflict theory
Symbolic Interactionism
How people use symbols
Functional Analysis
Society is a whole unit made up of parts that work together
Macro-Level Analysis
Examining large scale patterns
Social Interaction
Examining what people do in another's presence.
Micro-Level Analysis
Examines small-scale patterns of social interaction
Nonverbal interaction
Gestures, silence, and use of space
Sample
Members from your target population
Rapport
A feeling of trust with respondents
Secondary Analysis
Researches analyze data others have collected
Dependent Variable
The variable that might change
Independent Variable
Something that causes a change in another variable
Unobtrusive measures
Observing the behavior of people who don't know that are being studied
Value Free
Sociologist should not allow beliefs to affect research
Replication
Repeating a study in order to compare the new results with the original findings
Culture
the language, beliefs, values, and norms that are passed from generation to generation
Material Culture
Jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, and machines
Non-material Culture
A groups way of thinking - values
ethnocentrism
a tendency to use our own ways of doing things as a yardstick for judging others
Cultural relativism
trying to understand a culture on its own terms
Symbolic culture
Nonmaterial culture
Symbol
something to which people attach meaning and use for communication
Gestures
Movements of the body used for communication with others
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Language determines our consciousness
Values
What's desirable in life
Norms
Expectations concerning the right way to reflect values
Positive Sanction
Expresses approval for following a norm
Negative Sanction
Reflects disapproval for breaking a norm
History and biography
What were the two elements C. Wright Mills identified as being the key to understanding the sociological imagination?
The idea of applying the scientific method to the social world, which was first proposed by Auguste Comte, is called
positivism
What world event most inspired the development of sociology?
the Industrial Revolution
second father of sociology
Herbert Spencer
What term did Emile Durkheim use for the degree to which people are tied to their social groups?
social integration
What term did sociologist Max Weber use to refer to the self-denying approach to life?
the Protestant Ethic
Harriet Martireau
The woman who translated Auguste Comte's works into English
Robert Merton referred to the unintended consequences of a system that helps it adjust and aid the overall working of society as a[n]
latent function
Norms which are not strictly enforced, such as eating habits in the student dining hall and a relaxed dress code for attending class are referred to as
folkways
A society made up of many different groups with no single group having dominance over the others is called a ____________ society.
pluralistic
The sociologist who identified 12 core values shared by many groups in American society was ____________.
Robin Williams