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process by which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria


kind of virus that infects bacteria

base pairing

principle , principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine


process of copying DNA prior to cell division

DNA Polymerase

principle enzyme involved in dna replication


(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes

messenger rna

the template for protein synthesis

ribosomal rna

single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose.

transfer rna

type of rna that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis

rna polymerase

enzyme that produces rna


sequence of a eukaryotic gene's DNA that is not translated into a protein


sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures


a singular chain of amino acids

genetic code

set of rules genetic material is read


genetic code


base becomes protein


rna moecule that transfers amino acids to a polypeptide

gene expression

info from a gene is synthesized of a functional gene product


changing genetic sequence

point mutation

the replacment of a single nucleodide

frameshift mutation

A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.


a chemical that changes genetic material


cells are changed into different types of cells

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