37 terms

AP Biology Bingman Chapter 5

Use this set to study for Mr. Bingman's Chapter 5 Test!
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Free Radical
Any highly reactive molecular fragment having an unpaired electron
Metabolism
All the controlled, enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy to synthesize, store, degrade, and eliminate substances in ways that contribute to growth, survival and production
Potential Energy
A stationary objects capacity to do work owing to its posiion in space or to the arrangement of its parts
Kinetic Energy
Energy of Motion
Heat
Thermal energy; a form of kinetic energy
Chemical Energy
potential energy of molecules
First Law of Thermodynamics
Total amount of energy in the universe is constant. Energy cannot be created from nothng and existing energy cannot be destroyed
Entropy
Measure of the degree of disorder in a system
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Law of nature stating that the spontaneuous direction of energy flow is from organized forms to less organized
Endergonic
Chemical reaction having a net gain of energy
Exergonic
Chemical reaction having a net loss of energy
ATP
Nucleotide with adenine ribose, and 3 phostphate groups. Drives most energy requiring metabolic processes
Phosphorylation
Means of activating moleculs
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
A transfer of an electron (and often an unbound proton or H+) between atoms or molecules
Electron Transport Systems
Organized array of membrane bound enzymes and cofactors that accept and donate electrons in a series.
Concentration gradient
A difference in the # of molecules of a substance between adjoining regions.
Diffusion
Net movement of like molecules or ions down their concentration gradient
Metabolic Pathways
Oderly sequence of enzyme mediated reaction by which cells maintain, increase, or decrease the concentrations of particular substances
Enzymes
Catalyst molecules whch speed therate at which reactions approach equilibrium
Substrates
substances that enter into a reaction
Intermediates
Substances that form between the start and conclusion of metaboic pathway
End Products
Substance present at the conclusion of a reaction or pathway
Energy Carriers
Donate energy to sybstances by transferring functional groups to them; ATP is the main type.
Cofactors
Organic molecules or metal ions that assist enzymes or transport electrons/ atoms
Transport Proteins
Adjust the concentraion gradients at cell membranes in way that influence the direction of metablic reactions
Activation Energy
The amount of energy neededto bring colliding molecules to the transition state
Feedback Inhibition
Operates when a substance triggers a cellular change that shuts down production of that substance
Hormones
THe signaling molecules in Enzyme Control
Allosteric Enzymes
Have in addition to active sites, regulatory sites where control substances can bind to alter enzyme activity; If this control substance is the end product in the enzyme's metabolic pathway, feedback inhibiton occurs
Passive Transport
Solutes pass through the cell membrane with assistance from transport proteins in accordance with concentration gradient
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Major cotransport system in that it can set up concentration gradients that can in turn drive other transport activities
Phagocytic Cells
Digest contents of endocytic vesicles by means of enzymes within lysosomes which fuse4 with vesicles
Bulk Flow
The mass movement of one or mre substances in response to pressure, gravity, or some other extenal force
Osmosis
The passive movement of water across a differentially permeabe membrance in response to solute concentration gradients, or both
Hypotonic
Lower concentration of solutes than doesthe fluid in cells. Cells immersed in it may swell
Hypertonic
Greater Concentration of soute as the fluid in the cell. Cells immersed in it may shrivel
Isotonic
Same concentration of solutes as the fluid in the cell. Immersion in it causes no net movement of water