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First Aid parasites
Terms in this set (29)
Which parasite causes liver abscess and RUQ pain?
Entamoeba histolytica- also get bloody diarrhea (dysentery)...treat with metronidazole and iodoquinol
Which parasite will you see a flask shaped ulcer on histology?
Entamoeba histolytica...treat with metronidazole and iodoquinol
Which parasite can be diagnosed when trophozoites with RBCs in the cytoplasm are seen or cysts with multiple nuclei are seen in the stool?
Entamoeba histolyitca...treat with metronidazole and iodoquinol.
Which protozoan do you see cysts on an acid-fast stain?
Cryptosporidium...treat by prevention (by filtering city water supplies); no treatment. Clinically manifests as severe diarrhea in AIDS and transient (watery) diarrhea in healthy
What is the treatment for the parasite which causes brain abscess in HIV?
Toxoplasma gondii causes brain abscess in HIV, seen as ring enhancing lesions. The treatment is Pyrimethamine + Sulfadiazine.
Which parasite will you diagnose with amoebas in the spinal fluid?
Naegleria fowleri...Amphotericin has been effective for a few survivors.
How does Naegleria fowleri enter the brain to cause rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis?
Enters through the cribriform plate after swimming in freshwater lakes.
What is the name of the vector responsible for a Trypanosoma brucei, gambiense, or rhodesiense?
Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma gambiense, and Trypanosoma rhodesiense all cause African Sleeping Sickness. The method of transmission is by the Tsetse fly, which causes a painful bite. Treat with suramin (for bloodborne disease) or melarsoprol (for CNS penetration).
Which disease is transmitted by Anopheles mosquito?
Malaria...caused by Plasmodium species.
Which plasmodium species are Tertian? Which ones have fever spikes every 48 hours?
Plasmodium vivax and ovale are tertian (benign) and have fever spikes every 48 hours...treat with chloroquine (blocks plasmodium heme polymerase); if resistant, use mefloquine. Add primaquine for dormant form of liver (hypnozoite)
Which plasmodium species are dormant in the liver?
Plasmodium vivax and ovale...treat with chloroquine (blocks plasmodium heme polymerase); if resistant, use mefloquine. Add primaquine for dormant form of liver (hypnozoite)
Which plasmodium species has irregular fever patterns and can cause cerebral malaria?
Plasmodium falciparum has got irregular fever patterns and cause cause cerebral malaria due to parasitized RBC's occluding the capillaries in the brain (can also occlude lungs and kidneys too). Falciparum disease is malignant tertian...treat with chloroquine (blocks plasmodium heme polymerase); if resistant, use mefloquine.
Which plasmodium species is a quartan and causes 72 hour fever cycles?
Plasmodium malariae...treat with chloroquine (blocks plasmodium heme polymerase); if resistant, use mefloquine.
Which protozoan manifests as hemolytic anemia and fever? What part of the US is it most commonly found in?
Babesia. Causes babesiosis, which causes hemolytic anemia and fever. It is most commonly found in the northeastern US. It is transmitted by the same tick which causes Lyme disease (Ixodes tick). On blood smear, you will see a ring form and/or a maltese cross. Treat with Clindamycin and Quinine.
Which protozoal disease is transmitted by the Reduviid bug?
Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is transmitted by the Reduviid bug (kissing bug...painless bite). Chagas disease is mainly from S. America. It causes dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, and megaesophagus. Treat with Nifurtimox
Which protozoan causes an enlarged heart, enlarged colon, or enlarged esophagus?
Chagas disease caused by Trypansoma cruzi and transmitted by the Reduviid bug (painless, kissing bug) and found in South America. Treat with Nifurtimox
What is characteristically seen on blood smear in Leishmania donovani infection?
Macrophages containing amstigotes. Treat with sodium stibogluconate. Transmitted by the Sandfly and manifests as spiking fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia.
What is the Sandfly a vector of transmission for?
Leishmania donovani. Spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia. See Macrophages containing Amastigotes on blood smear. Treat with sodium stibogluconate.
How do you diagnose Trichomonas vaginalis?
Must see motile Trophozoites on wet mount. Treat with metronidazole for patient and partner prophylaxis. Trichomonas cannot survive outside humans because it cannot form cysts.
How do you treat Toxoplasmosis?
Pyrimethamine + Sulfadiazine
Which parasite reveals a ring form when blood smeared or RBC schizont with merozites? How do you treat it?
Plasmodium species reveal a ring form under blood smear and RBC schizonts with merozoites. Treat with chlorquine (blocks plasmodium heme polymerase). If resistant, use mefloquine. For vivax.ovale, add Primaquine for the hypnozoite form in the liver (dormant form in the liver).
Which parasite is diagnosed by a ring form and a maltese cross?
Babesia...severe disease in asplenic individuals.
Which parasite is diagnosed by macrophages containing amastigotes? What is the source of transmission? How do you treat it?
Leishmania donovani is diagnosed by macrophages containing amastigotes. The source of transmission is the Sandfly. The treatment is Sodium stibogluconate.
Which parasite causes Cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the bile ducts)?
Clonorchis sinensis...caused by ingesting undercooked fish. Leads to inflammaton of biliary tract...Pigmented Gallstones and Cholangiocarcinoma are a result. Treat with Praziquantel
Which parasite causes hemoptysis?
Paragonimus westermani results from undercooked crab meat and causes inflammation and secondary bacterial infection of the lung, causing hemoptysis. Treat with Praziquantel.
Which parasite can cause squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder?
Schistosoma haematobium penetrate the skin of humans causing granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation of the spleen and liver. Chronic infection can lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Snails are the host. Treat with Praziquantel.
Which parasite will cause vitamin B12 deficiency? Transmission and Treatment?
Diphyllobothrium latum will cause vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in anemia. Transmitted by the ingestion of larvae in raw freshwater fish. Treat with Praziquantel.
What kind of infection does Taenia solium cause?
Taenia solium causes cysticercosis (intestinal) and neurocysticercosis (mass, swiss-cheese lesions in the brain). Transmitted by ingestion of larvae encysted in undercooked pork. Treat with Praziquantel if intestinal or -bendazoles for neurocysticercosis.
How do you treat Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)?
-bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate
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