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195 terms

Consumer Behavior Test 1 Terms

Terms from Chapters 1, 8, 9, 10, & 11 of Dr. Kim Robertson's Consumer Behavior class at Trinity University (Spring 2011)
STUDY
PLAY
Consumer behavior
the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.
Social marketing
the application of marketing strategies and tactics to alter or create behaviors that have a positive effect on the targeted individuals or society as a whole.
Customer value
the difference between all the benefits derived from a total product and all the costs of acquiring those benefits.
Total product
the entire set of characteristics (product features, price, communications, distribution, and services) that provide customers with superior value.
market segment
a portion of a larger market whose needs differ somewhat from the larger market
need set
term used to reflect the fact that most products in developed economies satisfy more than one need
target market
the segment(s) of the larger market on which we will focus our marketing effort
marketing strategy
the answer to the question of "How will we provide superior customer value to our target market?"
marketing mix
product, place, promotion, price
product
anything a consumer acquires or might acquire to meet a perceived need; refers to the physical thing or primary/core services
Marketing communications
include advertising, the sales force, public relations, packaging, and any other signal that the firm provides about itself and its products (Answers 5 essential questions)
Price
the amount of money one must play to obtain the right to use the product
consumer cost
everything the consumer must surrender in order to receive the benefits of owning/using the product
distribution
having the product available where target customers can buy it; this is essential to success
service
refers to auxiliary or peripheral activities that are performed to enhance the primary product or primary service
product position
an image of the product or brand in the consumer's mind relative to competing products and brands
customer satisfaction
retaining current customers requires that they are content with their purchase and use of their product; it's more profitable to maintain existing customers than to replace them with new ones
Injurious consumption
occurs when individuals or groups make consumption decisions that have negative consequences for their long-run well-being
conceptual model
a figure that captures the general structure and process of consumer behavior; it does not contain sufficient detail to predict particular behaviors; however, it does reflect our beliefs about the general nature of consumer behavior
self-concept
the totality of an individual's thoughts and feelings about him- or herself
Lifestyle
simply how one lives, including the products one buys, how one uses them, and what one thinks/feels about them
information processing
a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored
perception
a process that begins with consumer exposure and attention to marketing stimuli and ends with consumer interpretation
Attention
occurs when the stimulus is "seen" (part of perception)
Interpretation
the assignment of meaning to the received sensations (part of perception)
Exposure
occurs when a stimulus comes within a person's relevant environment and comes within the range of their sensory receptor nerves (part of perception)
perceptual defense
means that individuals are not passive recipients of marketing messages
Zipping
occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial on a prerecorded program
Zapping
involves switching channels when a commercial appears
Muting
turning the sound off during commercial breaks
Ad Avoidance
zipping, zapping, and muting are simply mechanical ways for consumers to selectively choose advertising messages to listen to or not
product placement
marketers increasingly seek to gain exposure by placing their brands within entertainment media, (movies and TV programs) in exchange for payment or promotional or other consideration
infomercials
program-length television commercials with a toll-free number and/or Web address through which to order or request additional information
permission-based marketing
the voluntary and self-selected nature of such online offerings, where consumers "opt in" to receive e-mail based promotions
attention
occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing
intrusiveness
the degree to which one is forced to see or interact with a banner ad or pop-up in order to see the desired content
intensity
includes loudness, brightness, length, etc
repetition
the number of times an individual is exposed to a given stimulus (related to intensity)
position
refers to the placement of an object in physical space or time
high-impact zones
in general, these are the top and left of a print ad
isolation
separating a stimulus object from other objects
format
refers to the manner in which the message is presented
adaption level theory
suggests that if a stimulus doesn't change, over time we adapt or habituate to it and begin to notice it less
information quantity
represents the number of cues in the stimulus field
information overload
occurs when consumers are confronted with so much information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it
individual factors
characteristics that distinguish one individual from another (ex: consumer motivation and ability & their relationship with attention)
motivation
a drive state created by consumer interests and needs
product involvement
indicates motivation or interest in a specific product category (can be temporary or enduring)
smart banners
banner ads that are activated based on terms used in search engines (aka "behavioral targeting")
ability
refers to the capacity of individuals to attend to and process information
brand familiarity
high existing knowledge of a brand; an ability factor related to attention
situational factors
include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment
clutter
represents the density of stimuli in the environment
program involvement
refers to how interested viewers are in the program or editorial content surrounding the ads
ad quality
represents how well a message is constructed in terms of being believable and appealing, and in communicating the core message effectively
cocktail party effect
whereby an individual engaged in a conversation with a friend isn't consciously aware of other conversations at a crowded party until someone in another group says something relevant such as mentioning her name
hemispheric lateralization
a term applied to activities that take place on each side of the brain (left side = rational thought; right side = images and impressions)
subliminal stimulus
a message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it
interpretation
the assignment of meaning to sensations; how we comprehend and make sense of incoming information
perceptual relativity
generally a relative process rather than absolute (aspect of interpretation)
semantic meaning
the conventional meaning assigned to a word
psychological meaning
the specific meaning assigned a word by a given individual or group of individuals based on their experiences, expectations, and the context in which the term is used
cognitive interpretation
a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning
affective interpretation
the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad
affect intensity
some people experience emotions more strongly than others
expectation bias
an effect where individuals' interpretations of stimuli tend to be consistent with their expectations
contextual clues
these include situational characteristics that have an impact on interpretation such as temporary characteristics of the individual (time pressure and mood), and physical characteristics of the situation (number and characteristics of other individuals present), and the nature of the material surrounding the message in question.
incongruity
relates to the extent to which the stimulus is expected
Rhetorical figures
involve the use of an unexpected twist or artful deviation in how a message is communicated either visually in the ad's picture or verbally in the ad's text or headline
stimulus organization
refers to the physical arrangement of the stimulus objects
proximity
refers to the fact that stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the same category
ambush marketing
involves any communication or activity that implies, or from which one could reasonably infer, that an organization is associated with an event, when in fact it is not
closure
involves presenting an incomplete stimulus with the goal of getting consumers to complete it and thus become more engaged and involved
Figure-ground
involves presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background
Sensory discrimination
the physiological ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli
just noticeable difference (j.n.d.)
the minimum amount that one brand can differ from another (or from its previous version) with the difference still being noticed
referent state
change is interpreted with respect to this
reference price
this is a type of referent state
inference
goes beyond what is directly stated or presented
price-perceived quality
an inference based on the popular adage "you get what you pay for"
advertising intensity
a quality signal based on level of marketing to consumers
warranties
a quality signal where when this is longer it signals higher quality
country of origin (COO)
a quality cue in which consumers interpret products more positively when they are manufactured in a country they perceive positively
brand effects
where well-known brands are perceived as higher quality than are unknown brands
claim-belief discrepancies
whereby a communication leads consumers to believe something about the product that is not true even though it doesn't present a direct false claim
cross-promotions
whereby signage in one area of the store promotes complementary products in another
ambient scent
an example of this is when pleasant smells in a retail store can increase product evaluations by boosting emotions
morpheme
the inherent semantic meaning of a word (ex: "NutraSweet" with nutritious sweet or "Hemi" with high performance)
phonemes
sound of a word (ex: "Frosh" vs. "Frish" for ice cream name)
brand extension
where an existing brand extends to a new category with the same name
co-branding
an alliance in which two brands are put together on a single product
natural logos
logos that depict commonly experienced objects
elaborate logos
logos that entail complexity
symmetrical logos
logos that are visually balanced
learning
any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior and is the result of information processing
information processing
a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored
short-term memory (STM)
"working memory", deals with holding information temporarily while it is interpreted and transferred into long-term memory
long-term memory (LTM)
the portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage
maintenance rehearsal
the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long-term memory
chunking
organizing individual items into groups of related items that can be processed as a single unit
Elaborative activities
the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information (occur in STM)
concepts
abstractions of reality that capture the meaning of an item in terms of other concepts
imagery
involves concrete sensory representations of ideas, feelings, and objects
vivid
meaning they are relatively concrete representations of reality
semantic memory
the basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept
episodic memory
the memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated, "personal memories"
flashbulb memory
acute memory for the circumstances surrounding a surprising and novel event
schema (schematic memory/knowledge structure)
"complex web of associations"; a pattern of associations around a particular concept that give depth of meaning to concepts and episodes by becoming associated with other concepts and episodes
associative links
these are what connect various concepts to form the complete meaning assigned to an item
scripts
the memory of how an action sequence should occur such as purchasing and drinking a soft drink to relieve thirst (this is a special type of schema)
accessibility
the likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM
explicit memory
memory characterized by the conscious recollection of an exposure event
implicit memory
memory that involves the noncoscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli
high-involvement learning
situation is one in which the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material (type of learning)
low-involvement learning
situation is one in which the consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material (type of learning)
conditioning
a set of procedures that marketers can use to increase the chances that an association between two stimuli is formed or learned
classical conditioning
process of using an established relationship between one stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response to a different stimulus
operant conditioning (instrumental learning)
involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior
Cognitive learning
encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations
iconic rote learning
learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning (NOTE: there is neither an unconditioned stimulus nor a direct reward or reinforcement involved)
vicarious learning (aka viacrious modeling)
consumers learn by observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly
analytical reasoning
individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts (most complex form of cognitive learning)
analogical reasoning
an inference process that allows consumers to use an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object
stimulus discrimination (stimulus differentiation)
refers to the process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
spillover
this occurs when scandals don't always hurt just the scandalized brand, but also damages competitors in that industry
stimulus generalization
oftern referred to as the "rub-off effect" and it occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus
extinction
in conditioned learning, this is what forgetting is referred to
retrieval failure
in cogntive learning, this is what forgetting is referred to
corrective advertising
a government requirement that firms remove inaccurate learning caused by past advertising
self-referencing
indicates that consumers are relating brand information to themselves
reinforcement
anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future
positive reinforcement
a pleasant or desired consequence (type of reinforcement)
negative reinforcement
involves the removal or the avoidance of an unpleasant consequence (type of reinforcement)
punishment
it is any consequence that decreases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future (opposite of reinforcement)
pulsing
frequent (close together) repetitions that try to produce widespread knowledge of a product rapidly
advertising wearout
this is when too much repetition can cause consumers to actively shut out the message, evaluate it negatively, or disregard it
dual coding
this means that consumers can store the same information in different ways
echoic memory
memory of sounds, including words; provides the opportunity for dual coding when the sound component of a message conveys similar meanings to that being conveyed by the verbal message
memory interference
when consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way
product repositioning
refers to a deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product
brand equity
the value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product
brand leverage
often termed family branding, brand extensions, or umbrella branding and refers to marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products
complement
the two products are used together
substitute
the new product can be used instead of the original
transfer
consumers see the new product as requiring the same manufacturing skills as the original
image
the new product shares a key image component with the original
motivation
the reason for behavior (this word is often interchangeable with "need")
motive
a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response
latent motives
a group of motives that were either unknown to the consumer or were such that she was reluctant to admit them
projective techniques
designed to provide information on latent motives (motivation research)
laddering (means-end/benefit chain)
a popular tool for identifying motives where a product or brand is shown to a consumer who names all the benefits that product might provide, and for each of these benefits the respondent is asked to name more benefits, etc. etc.
involvement
a motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting
aproach-aproach conflict
a consumer who must choose between two attractive alternatives
approach-avoidance conflict
a consumer facing a purchase choice with both positive and negative consequences
avoidance-avoidance conflict
a choice involving only undersirable outcomes
promotion-focused motives
motives that revolve around a desire for growth and development and are related to consumers' hopes and aspirations
prevention-focused motives
motives that revolve around a desire for safety and security and are related to consumers' sense of duties and obligations
regulatory focus theory
suggests that consumers will react differently depending on which broad set of motives is most salient
personality
an individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situations
Five-Factor Model
this theory identifies 5 basic traits formed by genetics and early learning (extroversion, instability, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness)
multitrait personality theory
identifies several traits that in combination capture a substantial portion of the personality of the individual
single-trait theories
emphasize one personality trait as being particularly relevant to understanding a particular set of behaviors
consumer ethnocentrism
reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products
Need for cognition (NFC)
reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking
Consumers' need for uniqueness
reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods
brand personality
a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand
affect intensity
some people are more emotional than others; this is a consumer trait
emotion
refers to the indentifiable, specific feeling, and affect to refer to the liking-disliking aspect of the specific feeling
PAD
Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance
coping
involves consumer thoughts and behaviors in reaction to a stress-inducing situation designed to reduce stress and achieve more desired positive emotions
attitude
an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment
cognitive component
consists of a consumer's beliefs about an object
affective component
these are feelings or emotional reactions to an object
aesthetic appeal
this includes the appearance and sensory experience that tap consumers' affective reactions by going beyond the cognitive associations of functionality
behavioral component
is one's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity
mere exposure
simply presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions might make the individual's attitude toward the brand more positive
elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
a theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement
high involvement
what type of involvement leads to central route processing?
low involvement
what type of involvement leads to peripheral route processing?
source credibility
this is the trustworthiness and expertise of who/what is selling a product/service
testimonial ad
a person, generally a typical member of the target market, recounts his or her successful use of the product, service, or idea
spokescharacters
these are animated animals, people, products, or other objects that are used instead of celebrities to endorse a product/service
sponsorship
a company providing financial support for an event such as the Olympics or a concert
fear appeals
use the threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if attitudes or behaviors are not altered
humorous appeals
ads build around this appear to increase attention to and liking of the ad, particularly for those individuals high in need for humor
comparative ads
a type of ad that directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands
emotional ads
designed primarily to elicit a positive attractive response rather than to provide information or arguments
value-expressive appeals
attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user
utilitarian appeals
involve informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market
one-sided messages
only one point of view is expressed
two-sided messages
presenting both good and bad points
message framing
refers to presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms or in negative or loss terms
attribute framing
where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame
goal framing
where the message stresses either the positive consequences of performing an act or the negative consequences of not performing the act
benefit segmentation
separating consumers on the basis of their most important attribute or attributes