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AP Bio Test 1
Terms in this set (93)
Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of
the fossil record.
What was the prevailing belief prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.
During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception?
Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes.
Which of the following is the most accurate summary of Cuvier's consideration of fossils found in the vicinity of Paris?
extinction of species yes; evolution of new species no
In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, exposed to ever-colder temperatures, would eventually give rise to ever more cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of
Charles Darwin was the first person to propose
a mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence.
Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time?
All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors.
Natural selection is based on all of the following except
individuals adapt to their environments, and thereby evolve.
Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus?
Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows.
Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection?
1. Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring than do poorly adapted individuals.
2. A change occurs in the environment.
3. Genetic frequencies within the population change.
4. Poorly adapted individuals have decreased survivorship.
2 → 4 → 1 → 3
A biologist studied a population of squirrels for 15 years. During that time, the population was never fewer than 30 squirrels and never more than 45. Her data showed that over half of the squirrels born did not survive to reproduce, because of both competition for food and predation. In a single generation, 90% of the squirrels that were born lived to reproduce, and the population increased to 80. Which inference(s) about this population might be true?
The amount of available food may have increased. The number of predators that prey upon squirrels may have decreased.
Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population?
genetic variation among individuals
Which of Darwin's ideas had the strongest connection to Darwin having read Malthus's essay on human population growth?
struggle for existence
If Darwin had been aware of genes, and of their typical mode of transmission to subsequent generations, with which statement would he most likely have been in agreement?
If natural selection can change one gene's frequency in a population over the course of generations, then, given enough time and enough genes, natural selection can cause sufficient genetic change to produce new species from old ones.
The role that humans play in artificial selection is to
choose which organisms breed, and which do not.
In a hypothetical environment, fishes called pike-cichlids are visual predators of algae-eating fish (in other words, they locate their prey by sight). If a population of algae-eaters experiences predation pressure from pike-cichlids, which of the following is least likely to be observed in the algae-eater population over the course of many generations?
selection for larger female algae-eaters, bearing broods composed of more, and larger, young
DDT was once considered a "silver bullet" that would permanently eradicate insect pests. Today, instead, DDT is largely useless against many insects. Which of these would have been required for this pest eradication effort to be successful in the long run?
None of the individual insects should have possessed genomes that made them resistant to DDT.
Which of the following statements best describes theories?
They are supported by, and make sense of, many observations.
Currently, two extant elephant species (X and Y) are placed in the genus Loxodonta, and a third species (Z) is placed in the genus Elephas. Thus, which statement should be true?
Species X and Y share a greater number of homologies with each other than either does with species Z.
The rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be considered to be an example of artificial selection because
humans synthesize methicillin and create environments in which bacteria frequently come into contact with methicillin.
Two plant species live in the same biome but on different continents. Although the two species are not at all closely related, they may appear quite similar as a result of
If the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus experiences a cost for maintaining one or more antibiotic-resistance genes, then what should happen in environments from which antibiotics are missing?
These bacteria should be outcompeted and replaced by bacteria that have lost these genes.
Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the bones in the wing of a bird?
bones in the flipper of a whale
If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
they should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms.w
Structures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these bones having developed from very similar embryonic tissues. How do biologists interpret these similarities?
Two of the statements above are correct.
Over evolutionary time, many cave-dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses?
Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits.
Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree?
Relationships between DNA sequences among the species did not match relationships between skeletal patterns.
Which of the following statements most detracts from the claim that the human appendix is a completely vestigial organ?
The appendix has a substantial amount of defensive lymphatic tissue.
Members of two different species possess a similar-looking structure that they use in a similar fashion to perform the same function. Which information would best help distinguish between an explanation based on homology versus one based on convergent evolution?
The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical.
If x indicates the location of fossils of two closely related species, then fossils of their most-recent common ancestor are most likely to occur in which stratum?
If x indicates the fossils of two closely related species, neither of which is extinct, then their remains may be found in how many of these strata?
Currently, two extant elephant species (X and Y) are placed in the genus Loxodonta and a third species (Z) is placed in the genus Elephas. Assuming this classification reflects evolutionary relatedness, which of the following is the most accurate phylogenetic tree?
Which pair would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree?
Lamarck and Wallace
How many separate species, both extant and extinct, are depicted in this tree?
According to this tree, what percent of the species seem to be extant (in other words, not extinct)?
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has given rise to the greatest number of species, both extant and extinct?
Both X and Y can be considered to have given rise to the greatest number of extant and extinct species.
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has been least successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant?
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has been most successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant?
Evolutionary trees such as this are properly understood by scientists to be
The legless condition that is observed in several groups of extant reptiles is the result of
several instances of the legless condition arising independently of each other
The various taxonomic levels (namely, genera, classes, etc.) of the hierarchical classification system differ from each other on the basis of
If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?
D and F
Linnaeus was a "fixist" who believed that species remained fixed in the form in which they had been created. Linnaeus would have been uncomfortable with
The best classification system is that which most closely
reflects evolutionary history
The term homoplasy is most applicable to which of the following features?
the legless condition found in various lineages of extant lizards
If, someday, an archaean cell is discovered whose rRNA sequence is more similar to that of humans than the sequence of mouse rRNA is to that of humans, the best explanation for this apparent discrepancy would be
Which of the following are the best examples of homologous structures?
bones in the bat wing and bones in the human forelimb
Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). Consequently, the morphological similarities of these two species are probably due to
possession of analogous structures
The importance of computers and of computer software to modern cladistics is most closely linked to advances in
The common ancestors of birds and mammals were very early (stem) reptiles, which almost certainly possessed three-chambered hearts (two atria, one ventricle). Birds and mammals, however, are alike in having four-chambered hearts (two atria, two ventricles). The four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals are best described as
A large proportion of archaeans are extremophiles, so called because they inhabit extreme environments with high acidity, salinity, and/or temperature. Such environments are thought to have been much more common on the primitive Earth. Thus, modern extremophiles survive only in places that their ancestors became adapted to long ago. Which of the following is, consequently, a valid statement about modern extremophiles, assuming that their habitats have remained relatively unchanged?
On a phylogenetic tree whose branch lengths are proportional to the amount of genetic change, the branches of the extremophiles should be shorter than the non-extremophilic archaeans.
Which of the following is (are) problematic when the goal is to construct phylogenies that accurately reflect evolutionary history?
polyphyletic taxa and monophyletic taxa
Which of the following is true of all horizontally oriented phylogenetic trees, where time advances to the right?
The common ancestor represented by the rightmost branch point existed more recently in time than the common ancestors represented at branch points located to the left.
When using a cladistic approach to systematics, which of the following is considered most important for classification?
shared derived characters
Cladograms (a type of phylogenetic tree) constructed from evidence from molecular systematics are based on similarities in
mutations to homologous genes
There is some evidence that reptiles called cynodonts may have had whisker-like hairs around their mouths. If true, then what can be properly said of hair?
It is a shared derived character of the mammals, but only if cynodonts are reclassified as mammals.
A phylogenetic tree constructed using sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA would be most valid for discerning the evolutionary relatedness of
chimpanzees and humans
The most important feature that permits a gene to act as a molecular clock is
having a reliable average rate of mutation
Neutral theory proposes that
a significant proportion of mutations are not acted upon by natural selection.
Which of these would, if it had acted upon a gene, prevent this gene from acting as a reliable molecular clock?
Which kind of DNA should provide the best molecular clock for determining the evolutionary relatedness of several species whose common ancestor became extinct billions of years ago?
that coding for ribosomal RNA
What kind of evidence has recently made it necessary to assign the prokaryotes to either of two different domains, rather than assigning all prokaryotes to the same kingdom?
Which kingdom has been replaced with two domains?
Which eukaryotic kingdom is polyphyletic, and therefore unacceptable, based on cladistics?
Which extinct species should be the best candidate to serve as the outgroup for the clade whose common ancestor occurs at position 2 in Figure 20.1?
I f Figure 20.1 is an accurate depiction of relatedness, then which of the following should be correct?
1, 2, and 3
What can be properly inferred from Figure 20.2?
In the "Without" tree, pigs are more closely related to hippos than are whales.
Placing whales and hippos in the same clade means that
They had a common ancestor
If it turns out that the whale lineage diverged from the lineage leading to hippos after the divergence of the lineage leading to the pigs and other artiodactyls, and if the whales continue to be classified in the order Cetacea, then what becomes true of the order Artiodactyla?
It becomes paraphyletic.
f it turns out that the whale lineage diverged from the lineage leading to hippos after the divergence of the lineage leading to the pigs and other artiodactyls, and if the whales continue to be classified in the order Cetacea, then what becomes true of the taxon Cetartiodactyla?
It should be considered as one monophyletic superorder.
One morphological feature of modern cetaceans is a vestigial pelvic girdle. If it is determined that cetacean lineage diverged from the artiodactyls' lineage after the divergence of pigs and other artiodactyla, then what should be true of the vestigial pelvic girdle of cetaceans?
It should be considered a shared derived character of the cetaceans.
If cetaceans are determined to have diverged from the lineage leading to the artiodactyls before the divergence of lineages leading to the modern artiodactyls (including hippos), then the cetaceans can be considered
It was once thought that cetaceans had evolved from an extinct group of mammals called the mesonychids. If, in the future, it is determined that some organisms currently classified as cetaceans did actually evolve from mesonychids, whereas other cetaceans evolved from artiodactyl stock, then what will be true of the order Cetacea?
A and C
If the early history of life on Earth is accurately depicted by Figure 20.3, then which statement is least in agreement with the hypothesis proposed by this tree?
Eukaryotes are more closely related to archaeans than to bacteria
Which of these processes can be included among those responsible for the horizontal components of Figure 20.3?
Which portion of Figure 20.3 may ultimately be better depicted as a "ring"?
The trunk of the tree
The great apes comprise the family Hominidae, whereas the lesser apes comprise the family Hylobatidae. If the extant organisms on the far right side of Figure 20.4 comprise the next-most exclusive (i.e., specific) taxon, then they comprise different
Together, the lesser apes and great apes shared a common ancestor most recently with other members of their
Assuming chimps and gorillas are humans' closest relatives, removing humans from the great ape clade and placing them in a different clade has the effect of making the phylogenetic tree of the great apes
From Figure 20.4, which other event occurred closest in time to the divergence of gorillas from the lineage that led to humans and chimps?
could be either the divergence of chimps and humans OR of gibbons and siamangs
Based on the tabular data, and assuming that time advances vertically, which cladogram (a type of phylogenetic tree) is the most likely depiction of the evolutionary relationships among these five species?
Which of the following is the best explanation for the high degree of sequence homology observed in Exon I among these five species?
It codes for a polypeptide domain that has a crucial function.
Regarding these sequence homology data, the principle of maximum parsimony would be applicable in
inferring evolutionary relatedness from the number of sequence differences
Which of these four gene parts should allow the construction of the most accurate phylogenetic tree, assuming that this is the only part of the gene that has acted as a reliable molecular clock?
Taxonomically, what should be done with the birds?
The birds should be reclassified, and their new taxon should be the subclass Aves. Genetic similarity trumps morphological dissimilarity in cases where morphological traits are uninformative.
In a comparison of birds and mammals, the condition of having four limbs is
shared ancestral character
To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree,
choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or morphology
In figure shown below, which similarly inclusive taxon descended from the same common ancestor as Canidae?
Three living species X, Y, and Z share a common ancestor T, as do extinct species U and V. A grouping that consists of species T, X, Y, and Z (but not U or V) makes up
Based on the tree below, which statement is not correct?
Lizards are more closely related to salamanders than to humans.
If you were using cladistics to build a phylogenetic tree of cats, which of the following would be the best outgroup?
The relative lengths of the frog and mouse branches in the phylogenetic tree in the figure given below indicate that
the homolog has evolved more slowly in mice
Recommended textbook explanations
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