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21 terms

Social Structure and Social Interaction Chapter 4

Sociological Analysis Macrosocilogical Perspective: Social Structure and Microsoiolgical Perspective
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macrosociology
This first level of sociology faocuses on broad features of society. Conflict theorist and functionalists use this approach to analyze such things as social class and how groups are related to one another.
microsociology
This is the second level of sociology that focuses on social interaction, or what people do when they come together.
social structure
This refers to the typical patterns of a group, succh as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers. The sociological significance of social structure is that it guides our behavior. The social structure tends to over ride personal feelings and desires.
social class
Large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and eduation and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige.
status
Refers to the position that someone occupies. That position may carry a great deal of porestige, as in the case of a jude or an astronaut, or it may bring little prestige, as in the case of a convenience store clerk or a waitress at the local truck stop.
status set
Sociologist use this term to refer to all the statuses or positions that you occupy. Statuses are part of our basic framework of living in society.
ascribed status
You do not ask for it, nor can you choose it. At birth, you inherit ascribed statuses such as your race-ethnicity, sex, and social class of your parents, as well as your statuses as female or male.
achieved status
These you can earn or accomplish, and is voluntary.
Status symbols
People who are pleased with their social status often want others to recognize their particular positon. To elicit this recognition, they use status symbols signs that identify a status. For example, people who wear wedding rings to announce thier marital status. Status symbols can be used to announce to others our status, and to help smooth our interactions in everyday life.
master status
A master status cuts across other statuses. Some master statuses are ascribed. One example is your sex. Some are achieved, and others may not be.
status inconsistency
Our statuses usually fit together well, some people have a contradiction or mismatch between their statuses. It upsets our expectations.
roles
The behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status. The differene between role and status is that you occupy a status and play a role.
group
Consists of people who interact with one another, and who feel that the values, interest, and norms they have in common are important.
social institutions
The standard or usual ways that a society meets its basicc needs.
society
Consists of people who share a culture and a territory.
shaman
An individual thought to be able to influence spiritual forces, but must also help others obtain food.
pastoral societies
This term refers to a society which is based on the pasturing of animals. Pastoral societies developed in regions where low rainfalll made it impractical to build life around growing crops. The groups remained nomadic, and followed their animals to fresh pasture.
horticultural
Societies which are based on the cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools. Because they did not have to abandon an area as a food supply these groups developed permanent settlements.
agricultural society
People developed cities and what is knopwn as culture activieties which went beyond farming. These functions included philoosophy, art, music, literature, and architecture.
industrial society
As people left the land that their ancestors farmed, they moved to the cities. The industrial society began to develop.
postindustrial (information) socieites
Sweeping changes that transromed the lives of people, centered around technology. This type of change is referred to by sociologists as a new type of society called the posindustrial society.