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Protestant Reformation

Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. (p. 446)

Roanoke Island

English colony that Raleigh planted on an island off North Carolina in 1585; the colonists who did not return to England disappeared without a trace in 1590

Spanish Armada

the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.


seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents)

Joint-Stock Company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.


a document incorporating an institution and specifying its rights


first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay

First Anglo-Powhatan War

declared by Lord De La Warr when he took over Jamestown; marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe (first interracial union in Virginia) ended war in 1614

Second Anglo-Powhatan War

Indians last effort to dislodge Virginians, they were defeated. Peace treaty of 1646 stopped any hope of creating native peoples into Virginia society or peace with coexisting.

Act Of toleration

A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.

Barbados Slave Code

notorious code that denied themost fundamental rights to slaves and gave masters complete control


Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil

Tuscarora War

1711, Carolinas, Tuscarora Indians tire of British abuse and rise up but are put down by the British (with the help of the Cherokee Indians). Many of the Tuscarora are later used as slaves.

Yamasee Indians

South Carolinians ferociously defeat the Yamasee Indians. THe defeat of the Yamasee Indians signified the conquest of almost all coastal Indian Tribes, yet the interior tribes strengthened and grew in number


a cushion-like device that reduces shock due to contact

Iroquois Confederacy

An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)

Henry VIII

English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)

Elizabeth I

This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England

Sir Francis Drake

English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)

Sir Walter Raleigh

English courtier (a favorite of Elizabeth I) who tried to colonize Virginia

James I

the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625

Captain John Smith

English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia


Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia


a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)

Lord De La Warr

New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Lord Baltimore

Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.


A Mohawk leader who called members of five groups together forming the Iroquis Confederacy around 1570.

Chapter 3 terms



the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone


the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power


a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life


adheres to strict religious principles


sub-group of the Puritans who vowed to break completely with the Church of England

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community

great Migration

when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times


the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)

Fundamental Orders

The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens.

Pequot War

1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.

King Philip's War

1675, a series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

English Civil War

This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

Navigation Laws

Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America

Glorious Revolution

A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.

Salutary Neglect

british colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government


vast estates along the Hudson River established by the Dutch. Most failed.

Blue Laws

Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays

Martin Luther

German theologian who led the Reformation

John Calvin

religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Anne Hutchinson

American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643)

Roger Williams

English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism


Wampanoag chieftain who befriended English colonists

King Philip

Indian leader who waged an unsuccessful war against New England

Charles II

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism

Sir edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England

Mary II

she and her husband take over england and the throne in the glorious revolution and parliament passes the bill of rights

Henry Hudson

English navigator who sailed for the dutch and discovered the Hudson River

Peter Stuyvesant

the last Dutch colonial administrator of New Netherland

Duke of York

King Charles the Second gave the colony to his brother (this name) who renamed it New York instead of New Netherland/New Amsterdam

William Penn

Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)

Indentured Servant

Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America

Headright System

Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.

Royal African Company

Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia.

Middle Passage

the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade

New York slave revolt

(1712) Uprising of approximately two dozen slaves that resulted in the deaths of nine whites and the brutal execution of 21 participating blacks

South Carolina Slave Revolt

1739 -- more than 50 slaves along Stono River tried to march to Spanish Florida but were stopped by local militia

Congregational Church

A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves

Half-Way Covenant

A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Salem witch trials

Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.

Leisler's Rebellion

Small New York revolt of 1689-1691 that reflected class antagonism between landlords and merchants

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