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Terms in this set (230)
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
The process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside of the female
fertilization of an egg by sperm that occurs inside the body of a female
Asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
Asexual reproductive or resting cell capable of developing into a new organism without fusion with another cell, in contrast to a gamete
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
process in which the blastocyst attaches to the wall of the uterus
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
the double-helix structure of the DNA molecule
phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base
A with T & G with C -- This forms the double helix
A, T, C, G
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
Fertilisation in plants
If a pollen grain lands on the stigma of a plant, a pollen tube will grow out of the pollen grain, down through the style to the ovary and into the ovule. A nucleus from the male gamete then moves down the pollen tube and will fuse with the nucleus of the female gamete, which is fertilisation. A fertilised female gamete forms a seeds and the ovary develops into a fruit around the seed.
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Male sex hormone
Female sex hormone which stimulates the lining of the womb to build up in preparation for a pregnancy.
hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Produced by Anterior lobe of Pituitary Gland. Targets ovaries and testes to stimulate estrogen secretion and egg maturation; stimulates sperm production.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
a hormone that influences the maturing of eggs and production of sperm
A form of asexual reproduction in which plants produce genetically identical offshoots (clones) of themselves, which then develop into independent plants.
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
DNA unzips into two parts and splits with the cell. In it's new home each side of the DNA strand attack to matching nucleotides to create 2 exact copies. It is important in puberty and other times of growth as it is the reproducing of your cells.
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
a cell that differs from a prokaryotic cell chiefly by having a nuclear membrane, organelles, and mitotic cell division
cellualar organisms that lack a true nucleus
The biological Production of peptides. DNA generates mRNA; mRNA moves to the ribosomes, where a tRNA anticodon binds to an mRNA codon, causing amino acids to join together in their appropriate order.
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
all the other genes in the body that are not sex-linked.
occurs when certain traits are determined by genes on sex chromosomes
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
A gene that has more than two alleles
A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
Punnet Square Method
a method of predicting the genotypes and phenotypes of offspring in genetic crosses
How often a behavior occurs within a given time frame. The behavior must have a clear start and stop
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
A single base-pair site in a genome where nucleotide variation is found in at least 1% of the population.
independant segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
one of a number of different forms of a gene
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
inheritance pattern of a dominant allele on an autosome
two copies of an abnormal gene must be present in order for the disease or trait to develop
trait controlled by two or more genes
The scientific study of heredity
Determining the exact order of the base pairs in a segment of DNA.
The analysis of DNA from samples of body tissues or fluids in order to identify individuals.
A procedure that analyzes DNA fragments to determine whether they come from a specific individual.
Short tandem repeats
(STR) simple sequence DNA containing multiple tandemly repeated units of two to five nucleotides. variations in STRs act as genetic markers in STR analysis, used to prepare genetic profiles
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
Sanger sequencing method
Method used in DNA sequencing
BRCA1 and BRCA2
breast cancer 1 and 2 - genetic mutations associated with increased risk for breast cancer
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
a kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously.
gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
A change in the chromosome structure, resulting in new gene combinations.
a mutation that occurs in a body cell
a mutation occurring in gametes; passed on to offspring
sequences of a gene's DNA (also known as exons) that are coded to produce a specific protein and are transcribed and translated during protein synthesis
Sequences of a gene's DNA (also known as introns) that are not coded to produce specific proteins and are excised before protein synthesis.
Differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other DNA segments
movement of alleles from one population to another
A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
A mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
a change in the base sequence of a gene that results from the loss of one or more base pairs in the DNA
involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
A base-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.
change to a chromosome in which part of the chromosome is repeated
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Mutation in which a chromosome piece reattaches to original chromosome but in reverse orientation
the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell
genomic DNA that does not encode proteins, and whose function, if it has one, is not well understood.
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
refer to the positive or
negative impact on an individual or group as a
result of an action or choice made by an individual
or group. The action or choice could be made by
the individual themselves or by another person or
The study of ethics related to issues that arise in health care.
The impact that psychological research may have in terms of the rights of other people especially participants. This includes, at a societal level, influencing public policy and/or the way in which certain groups of people are regarded.
DNA fingerprinting, genetic engineering, gene therapy, cloning
the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
early history as related to food and shelter, including domestication
built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine
various scientific techniques used to produce specific desired traits in plants, animals or microorganisms through the use of genetic knowledge.
short DNA fragments of a known sequence that will base-pair with a stretch of DNA with a complementary sequence, if one exists in the sample
involves the insertion of foreign DNA directly into a cell's nucleus using a glass micropipet
metal fragments with DNA coating fired into plant cells
A technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing the cells. The pulse creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membrane, through which DNA can enter.
In transduction, the DNA is being moved between the two cells by
a viral vector
range of activities concerned with understanding gene expression, taking advantage of natural genetic variation, modifying genes and transferring genes to new hosts.
A change in the genes over time
Injecting semen into the uterus by artificial means
Method of fertilisation in which fertile stigmas arc dusted with pollen from selected plants, to give desired characteristics; usually done by hand.
Whole organism cloning
Creating a whole new organism using the DNA of an already existing individual.
the production of multiple identical copies of a gene-carrying piece of DNA
an organism that contains genes from another species
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
Agricultural applications of genetic engineering
Introduction of desirable traits into agriculturally important animals and plants
e.g., bovine growth hormone
e.g., nitrogen fixation capabilities
e.g., plant resistance to environmental stresses
e.g., creating pest resistant plants...
Medical Applications of Genetic Engineering
-Treatment of disease
-Diagnosis of disease
-Research on the molecular basis of disease
Biotechnology in agriculture
-No more selective breeding, now strains are created in the lab
-Many crops and animals are genetically modified to "improve" quality or produce drugs
-Resistance to herbicides, pests, disease, drought, etc
-Altered riping, oil content, vitamin content, novel proteins
The combination of people, the activities and interactions among people, the setting in which behavior occurs, and the expectations and social norms governing behavior in that setting
Aspect of policy focused on production, distribution and use income, wealth and resources.
The values, attitudes, beliefs, orientations, and underlying assumptions prevalent among people in a society
The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
IVF (in vitro fertilization)
procedure that allows for mother's ova to be fertilized outside of body and then implanted back into the uterus for development and birth.
Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
A process in which a cell, cell product, or organism is copied from an original source.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
method of reproductive cloning in which genetic material is transferred from an adult somatic cell into an unfertilized, enucleated egg
a form of artificial asexual reproduction in which the branch of one plant is inserted into the stem of another plant
An organism that causes disease
The process of spread of a disease agent through a population.
A tiny, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell.
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
microscopic, one-celled animals often found in decayed materials and contaminated water
live in host but release juvenile stages outside host's body
A kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients
infectious protein particles that do not have a genome
exposure or transmission of a communicable disease from one person to another by physical contact
Exposure or transmission of disease from one person to another by contact with a contaminated object.
transmission of an infectious agent by an insect, arthropod, or animal
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.
determines if microorganisms (endotoxins and bacteria) are present
A contagious viral disease originating in Africa. It is transmitted by blood and body fluids and causes body organs and vessels to leak blood, usually resulting in death.
Developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens
A French chemist, this man discovered that heat could kill bacteria that otherwise spoiled liquids including milk, wine, and beer.
Louis Pasteur's experiment
proved that spontaneous generation did not happen with boiled broths in s shaped containers.
a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease
The theory that diseases were caused by miasma or bad air arising from organic decay, filth, or other conditions of the local environment.
the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
bacterial hoof disease that spreads from the interdigital skin to the deeper foot structures
Wilt caused by the Fusarium fungus that affects bananas
Entry of pathogens
Parts of the body that pathogens use to gain entry intro the body
Transmission of pathogens
- The transmission can be direct, where the pathogens pass directly from person to person
- The transmission can be indirect, where the pathogen is transferred from the environment (Eg, food, air, water) to the person
- The pathogen could also be transmitted from person to person by being carried by another organism (a vector). For example, the mosquito is a vector that can transmit the malaria parasite
ability to produce disease
A disease that is caused by a pathogen and that can be spread from one individual to another.
Plants defend themselves from pathogens as they have a waxy outer layer that covers the leaf and the stem called the cuticle. This acts as the physical barrier.
If pathogens get through this layer they must penetrate through the cell wall to get inside the cell, they do this by releasing enzymes that soften the cell wall.
Most plants have chemical barriers such as poisons or insect repellant to protect it from pests.
substance that triggers an immune response
First line of defense
intact skin, mucous membranes and their secretions, normal microbiota
Second line of defense
protective cells and fluids; inflammation and phagocytosis - nonspecific
•Constant sloughing off of cells from the stratum corneum
•Antimicrobial peptides in epithelial cells
Third line of defence
an epithelial tissue that secretes mucus and that lines many body cavities and tubular organs including the gut and respiratory passages.
The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner
wash organisms away
the low pH of the stomach helps destroy swallowed pathogens
Cell death (apoptosis)
selective death of certain cells when surrounding cells are infected by a disease
The inflammatory response (inflammation) occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. The damaged cells release chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling, redness and heat.
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells
Innate immune system
a collection of nonspecific barriers and cellular responses that serve as an inborn first and second line of defense against pathogens
Adaptive immune system
Respond to specific antigens; Responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed
Composed of a network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs. Provides defense against infection.
Natural killer cells
a lymphocyte able to bind to certain tumor cells and virus-infected cells without the stimulation of antigens, and kill them by the insertion of granules containing perforin.
molecules found on every body cell that presents antigen; signals cytotoxic T to destroy
expressed on the surface of APCs (macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells) and functions by presenting antigen that is foreign in the body. Antigen is taken into the body by phagocytosis or endocytosis and is loadd onto MHC II within acidified endosomes, and then expressed on the surface. Failure to acidify lysosomes would lead to deficient expresson of of MHC class II bound to foreign antigen.
the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells.
Innate immune response
rapid but relatively nonspecific immune response
the ability to recognize and remember specific antigens and mount an attack on them
Immunity that is present before exposure and effective from birth. Responds to a broad range of pathogens.
immunity produced by exposure to an antigen, as a result of the immune response. Long term immunity.
the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.
Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
Plasma B cells produce
Memory b cells function
circulate the body, proliferate, and response quickly (via antibody synthesis) to eliminate subsequent invasion by same antigen. (2ndary response - takes less time, ~5 days)
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
Cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.
Memory t cells function
circulate the body, proliferate, and respond to eliminate subsequent invasion by same antigen. (2ndary response - takes less time, ~5 days)
Cytotoxic T cells
T cells, often called killer cells because of their capability to kill invading organisms.
Helper T cells
One type of T lymphocyte that activates B cells and other T lymphocytes
Supressor T cells
Inhibit function of T cells and B cells
Part of the body's defense against pathogens in which cells of the immune system react to each kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at that pathogen.
phagocytize (engulf) foreign substances and help activate T cells
Clonal selection theory
States that the antigen selects which lymphocyte will undergo clonal expansion and produce more lymphocytes bearing the same type of receptor.
Humoral immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
Cell-mediated immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells.
later interactions with the same foreign substance; faster and more effective due to "memory"
Initial response to a specific antigen. During a primary response, T and B lymphocytes are activated and specific antibodies and memory cells to the antigen produced.
forms when antibodies bind to antigens
Caring for the skin, hair, nails, mouth, teeth, and perineal area.
a state, period, or place of isolation in which people or animals that have arrived from elsewhere or been exposed to infectious or contagious disease are placed.
injection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen to produce immunity
substances, either natural or synthetic, that are used to kill or control organisms
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
Drugs that act, are effective, or are directed against viruses.
A chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth without harming body cells.
disease constantly present in a population
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
A sudden rise in the incidence of a disease
The number or rate of new cases of a particular condition during a specific time.
The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.
The resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune
virus, mosquito vector, flu like symptoms. lasts about a week.
belief or practice of draining a quantity of blood to cure illness or disease
traditional aboriginal medicine using elements from the land
overcrowding, infrastructure, sewage, water treatment, societal and cultural beliefs.
geographical isolation, trade of fresh food, availability of vectors and favourable climates for breeding
international travel, migration of refugees, antibiotic resistance and the internet
virulence, dose, incubation period
health, malnutrition, concurrent diseases and use of pharmaceuticals
antivaccination campaigns, lack of education, mass human population movements, isolated societies, international travel
Naturally acquired active immunity
Occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease and becomes immune, because of the primary immune response
Naturally acquired passive immunity
The type of immunity which is the result of placental transfer of antibodies is called
Artificially acquired active immunity
Occurs through the administration of a vaccine that contains an antigen. A vaccine stimulates a primary immune response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease
Artificially acquired passive immunity
The type acquired immunity that results from the inoculaton of immune serum is called
the ability to produce a desired or intended result
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
analgesic from the mudjala plant used by aboriginals for pain relief
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HSC biology revision 2018, HSC Biology
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