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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Unit 2 Test
Terms in this set (44)
Cities that were deliberately established or developed as administrative commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers.
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of Englad was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
All men are created equal
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade) gave all the power to the states
A document which spells out the principles by which a government runs and the fundamental laws that govern a society
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Bill of Rights, 1791
The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed to assuage the fears of Anti-Federalists
Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Pay off all war debts, raise government revenues, create a national bank
The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
Necessary and Proper Clause
constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Strict Interpretation of the Constitution
believed people should follow exactly what was stated and allowed in the document
Loose Interpretation of the Constitution
believed that the document permitted everything that it did not expressly forbid
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act.
Interprets the laws
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States finding new resources, plants, animals
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
US foreign policy regarding Latin American countries stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"
Tariff of Abominations (1828)
Tariff with such high rates that it set off tension between northerners and southerners over tariff issues (called the Nullification Crisis)
Force Bill (1833)
Jackson's response to S. Carolina's ordinance of nullification that declared the tariffs of 1828 & 2832 null and void, & S. Carolina would not collect duties on them; authorized President Jackson to use military force to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832; never invoked b/c it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary; nullified by S. Carolina
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Mexican Cession, 1848
Land that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. This territory included CA, NM, NV, AZ, UT, TX, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there.
A tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
Hamilton's big idea; fiercely opposed by Jefferson and Democratic-Rep. The bank would regulate money and draw investors; showed that the constitution could be construed in many a way. "necessary and proper"
Texas Annexation 1845
Although most Texans favored annexation by the U.S., relations with Mexico and Texas's slave status were obstacles. Many politicians (Northern) didn't want to tip power in the senate to pro-slavery states.
Oregon Territory 1846
Many American settlers were in this territory. Britain abandoned it's claim to this territory not wanting another war
Loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
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