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Notes (lab exam 1)
Terms in this set (18)
Basic Procedures: Setting up
-wipe down your area with sanitizer and grab beginning materials
-clip slide onto a clothes pin
-draw a quarter sized circle
Basic Procedures: getting bacteria onto slide
-turn on bunsen burner
-within the circle, add a very small amount of water
-sterilize inoculating loop through flame
-sterilize uncapped tube through flame. be sure that the cap never touches the table
- take the loopful of bacteria and water and spread the mixture around the slide. cover as much area as possible
-let it air dry
Basic Procedures: heat fixing
-after the sample has air dried, you must heat fix it.
-pass through the flame from the bunsen burner a minimum of six times. at this point the sample will be cloudy
Basic Procedures: staining
staining methods vary for each staining procedure
What makes a simple stain different from differential?
-colors everything non-selectively
-basic dyes such as safranin and methylene blue are used, but only one color is needed
-helps to decipher the morphology, arrangements, and internal structures of the organism
What make differential stains different from simple?
-colors some cells but not others
-uses chemistry for identification
-requires more than one color; a primary stain and a counter stain
adds color to target organism
helps color adhere to target
removes excess color from background for contrast
adds different color to background for contrast
At what step of the four-step protocol is the differential stain itself applied?
the first step. For the gram stain specifically, when we add the crystal violet
When are simple stains used as part of a differential staining protocol?
the 4th step when we add the counter stain
Why are certain objects flamed during the staining process?
to sterilize the equipment and avoid contamination
Why do we fuse bacteria to the slide?
so that when color is added and then rinsed off by the decolorizer, the specimen does not wash off
What is a wet mount?
A drop of liquid on a slide topped with a cover slip
What is an advantage of using a wet mount instead of a smear?
wet mounting improves the viewing quality of the sample. it is often used to view the activities of microorganisms. However, it cannot be saved. After the water has evaporated, the slide is no longer good.
Why do most microorganisms need to be stained?
most microorganisms are clear
What is a smear?
material spread on a slide for microscopic examination. no cover slip needed
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