Which of the following molecules is likely to accumulate in any dead or dying tissues? A) Uric acid B) Calcium C) Melanin D) Protein
Free radical injury can be caused by all of the following factors except:
A) tissue damage by antioxidants. B) tissue reperfusion following ischemia. C) radiation injury. D) enzymatic metabolism of chemicals.
A) tissue damage by antioxidants.
An individual with damage to the spinal cord may experience atrophy of which of the following organs?
A) Skeletal muscles B) Liver C) Brain D) Skin
A) Skeletal muscles
Vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene are molecules in food that act as: A) receptor blockers. B) poisons. C) free radicals. D) antioxidants.
Metaplasia involves the replacement of normal cells by:
A) cancer cells. B) abnormal cells of the same tissue type. C) another type of cell. D) scar tissue.
C) another type of cell
The most common cause of hypoxic injury is: A) malnutrition. B) free radicals. C) ischemia. D) chemical toxicity.
Metaplasia occurs in response to: A) cell injury from noxious stimuli. B) increased workload. C) growth factor secretion. D) viral infection.
A) cell injury from noxious stimuli.
thermal, mechanical, or chemical substances that cause injury
Lysosomal rupture during hypoxic injury leads to: A) cellular adaptation. B) sodium influx. C) autodigestion of cells. D) cellular acidosis.
C) autodigestion of cells.
Which of the following molecules accumulates in liver cells as a result of alcohol abuse? A) Water B) Fat (lipids) C) Iron D) Protein
B) Fat (lipids)
Why is carbon monoxide exposure a life-threatening condition? A) Inhalation of carbon monoxide interferes with oxygen diffusion in the lungs. B) Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin and prevents normal oxygen transport to tissues. C) Carbon monoxide causes the release of toxic amounts of iron from the tissues. D) Carbon dioxide removal from the tissues is inhibited.
B) Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin and prevents normal oxygen transport to tissues.
In response to an increased workload, such as that caused by high blood pressure (hypertension), myocardial cells in the left ventricle will adapt through the process of: A) hyperplasia. B) dsyplasia. C) atrophy. D) hypertrophy.
The process of cellular atrophy is accomplished through which of the following processes? A) Formation of autophagic vacuoles B) Decreased cell division C) Loss of fluid D) Inhibition of enzyme formation
A) Formation of autophagic vacuoles
Chronic infection of the cervix by the human papillomavirus results in cervical: A) dysplasia. B) atrophy. C) hormonal hyperplasia. D) metaplasia.
. Tissue ischemia and a decrease in mitochondrial oxygenation result in: A) calcium accumulation outside the cell. B) decreased ATP production. C) cellular dehydration. D) increased protein synthesis.
B) decreased ATP production.
Free radicals directly injure cells by each of the following mechanisms except: A) DNA fragmentation. B) mitochondrial damage. C) lipid peroxidation. D) activation of lysosomal enzymes.
D) activation of lysosomal enzymes
Atypical hyperplasia (dysplasia) is characterized by abnormal changes in all of the following except: A) cell size. B) cell organization. C) cell shape. D) cell secretions
D) cell secretions
Liquefactive necrosis typically occurs after severe hypoxic injury to which of the following organs? A) Brain B) Pancreas C) Heart D) Adrenals
Cellular atrophy involves: A) an increase in the number of cells. B) an increase in cell size. C) a decrease in the number of cells. D) a decrease in cell size.
D) a decrease in cell size.
Pathologic hyperplasia can lead to: A) all of the above. B) metaplasia. C) neoplasia (cancer). D) dysplasia.
A) all of the above.
The process by which cells program themselves to die is called: A) pyknosis. B) karyolysis. C) apoptosis. D) necrosis.
Which of the following cellular processes occurs during apoptosis? A) Cellular swelling B) Cell lysis C) Cleavage of key cellular proteins D) Activation of inflammation
C) Cleavage of key cellular proteins
Restoration of oxygen to oxygen-deprived tissues results in: A) reperfusion injury. B) establishment of normal cell metabolism. C) hypoxic injury. D) chemical injury.
A) reperfusion injury
In compensatory hyperplasia, growth factors stimulate cell division in response to: A) tissue loss. B) decreased hormonal stimulation. C) ischemia. D) puberty.
A) tissue loss.
Injury to the endoplasmic reticulum due to hypoxic injury results in: A) lactic acid production. B) sodium accumulation. C) the release of enzymes. D) a decrease in protein synthesis.
D) a decrease in protein synthesis
The process of muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in: A) plasma membrane thickness. B) cell division. C) protein synthesis. D) water accumulation.
C) protein synthesis.
Adaptive cellular mechanisms function to: A) prevent cellular aging. B) treat disease. C) protect cells from injury. D) speed up cellular death.
C) protect cells from injury.
What are the primary factors contributing to oncosis from hypoxic injury? A) Decrease in ATP production and sodium movement into the cell B) Increase in ATP production and potassium movement out of the cell C) Injury to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus D) Accumulation of lipids and pigments in the cell
A) Decrease in ATP production and sodium movement into the cell