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17 terms

Vitamins & Minerals

STUDY
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Thiamine (B1)
Precursor of PDH
Def: Beri Beri, Wernwicke's Encephalopathy
Riboflavin (B2)
Precursor of FADH
Def:Skin lesions
Niacin (B3)
Precursor of NADP and NAD
Def:Pellagra
Pentothenic Acid (B5)
Precursor for CoA
Def: Rare
B6
coenzyme in amino acid metabolism
Def: Rare
Biotin (b7)
Precursor in carboxylases
Def: Rare
Folic Acid (B9)
DNA synthesis
Def: Anemia
Cobalamine (B12)
DNA synthesis
Def: Megaloblastic Anemia
Calcium
Deficiency: Osteomalacia, rickets
Excess: Tissue calcification
Sodium
Def: Vomiting, decreased plasma volume
Excess: Hypertension
Potassium
Def: Cardiac arrythmias, vomitting
Excess: Cardioplegia, renal failure
A
Retinal+opsin= Rhodopsin
B-Carotene important antioxidant
Found in plants
Retinoic acid regulates growth of cells (acne treatment)
Toxic: Hypervitaminosis A, congenital defects
D
Calcium homeostasis: Increase calcium in blood,
increase bone resorption,
increase calcium absorption from intestine,
increase calcium reabsorption from kiney
PTH
E
Free radical scavenger
C
Reducing agent
Free radical scavenger protects vit E and A
Coenzyme in hydroxylation reactions- collagen synthesis
Keeps Fe2+ reduced in gut allowing iron absorption
Def:Scurvy
K
Blood clotting
Carboxyglutamate and calcium bridges
glutamate to carboxyglutamate
Water Soluble Vitamins
B, C