27 terms

Science Final Exam Vocabulary - Earth Review

STUDY
PLAY
soil conservation
a method to maintain the fertility of the soil by protecting the soil from erosion and nutrient loss
crop rotation
Planting different crops at different times to avoid nutrient depletion
cover crops
crops that are planted between harvests to replace certain nutrients and prevent erosion
contour plowing
Plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
no till farming
A soil conservation technique that prevents erosion by providing cover like old stalks to reduce water runoff. (farming)
terracing
"Steps" carved into mountains to make the land flatter for farming.
erosion
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away
nutrients
Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
parent rock
A rock formation that is the source of soil
bedrock
The solid layer of rock beneath the soil
rock cycle
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
tectonic plates
Sections of the Earth's crust that move due to convection currents. (continental/oceanic)
plate boundary
the region where two tectonic plates are in contact (convergent, divergent, transform)
seismic waves
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
(primary, secondary, surface)
volcano
A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
earthquake
A shaking or sliding of the ground. It is caused by the sudden movement of masses of rock along a fault or by changes in the size and shape of masses of rock far beneath the earth's surface.
continental drift
The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
sea-floor spreading
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
mid-ocean ridges
Undersea mountain ranges through the center of which run steep, narrow valleys
crust
Earth's outermost layer.
mantle
Begins about 6 miles under the ocean's crust and 19 miles below the continent's crust
core
the earth's center
lithosphere
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
mesosphere
strong lower part of the mantle to the core
asthenosphere
A plastic, or flowing, layer within Earth's mantle
Tectonic plates "float" on what layer
inner core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth (solid)
outer core
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth (liquid)