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HNF 150 - MSU Exam 1*
Terms in this set (151)
What is nutrition?
study of how food nourishes the body
protects cells against damage
important for healthy gums and skin
helps absorb iron
What are nutrients?
components of food that are indispensable to the body's functioning
What do nutrients provide?
serve as building material
maintain or repair body parts
must be obtained from an external source because we can't make them ourselves or can't make enough
Type of Nutrients
What are calories?
1 calorie = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius
foods rich in nutrients relative to their energy content (calories)
*usually whole foods
Why measure diet and nutrition?
- characterize dietary patterns of individuals
- assess exposure to food, nutrients and non-nutrients
- identify population groups who do not have adequate nutrition for preventing diseases
How do we measure diet and nutrition?
Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)
measures usual amounts of foods commonly eaten over a time period
measure nutrients or metabolites in bio fluids (blood, urine, saliva, tissues, hair nails, skin, etc.)
Type of Studies
studies of individuals
studies of population, often used in nutrition to search for correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence
studies of population in which observation is accompanied by experimental manipulation of some population members
studies that are performed under tightly controlled conditions and are designed to pinpoint cause and effect
group or animals participating in an experiment that receives the treatment under investigation
group of individuals who are similar in all possible respects to the group being treated, but receive a sham treatment(placebo)
lost nutrients during processing
added back in
added, not natural
any healthy food claimed to have a health promoting or disease preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrient
nutrients the body can use for energy: carbs, fats, proteins
Saturated fat free
<.5 of saturated and trans fat
Trans fat free
<.5 of saturated and trans fat
foods containing a high amount of carbohydrates: grains, fruits, vegetables
"Less, fewer, or reduced"
Containing at least 25% less of a nutrient or calories than reference food
Need for scientific evidence; FDA report card; claims linking food constituents w/disease
Feed FDA definitions
Glands that monitor a condition that produces one or more hormones to regulate it. each hormone acts as a messenger that stimulates various organs to take appropriate action
Receives and intergrates information from sensory receptors all over the body
Many of the body's tissues cooperating to maintain defenses against infection
Body system composed of organs that break down complex food particles into smaller, absorbable products
Body's organs playing role in removing wastes
Body's system that stores and releases nutrients to meet the cells needs between meals
the smallest units in which independent life can exist
systems of cells working together to preform specialized taks
discrete structural units made of tissues that perform specific jobs
any of a great number of working proteins that speed up a specific chemical reaction
the fluid that moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces and then travels in its own vessels
Kim likes to eat chocolate chip ice cream from the MSU Dairy Store every day after class. She enjoys the ice cream, but experiences bloating, flatulence, and stomach aches after her daily treat. What is the most likely explanation for what happens to Kim?
- She is lacking the enzyme lactase.
Which provides tennis players with the immediate bursts of energy they need to play well?
True/False: Multiple types of research studies have shown that a whole foods, plant-based diet (consisting of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes) minimizes the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.
Which food contains carbohydrates that would be most beneficial for your heart?
- Apple Juice
Once food has entered the stomach, the mixture of food, saliva and digestive juices is called:
Soluble fiber can be found in all of the following foods:
- Oat bran
- Kidney Beans
Drinking alcohol in moderation is defined by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines as up to ___drink(s) for men and ____ drink(s) for women per day.
- 2 Drinks for Men
- 1 Drink for Women
In which of the following organs does almost all of the alcohol we consume get processed?
Which of the following is NOT required on food labels in the United States?
A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. Which of the following would provide the energy which this person would need to survive after 1 week?
How many calories are in a food that contains 10 grams of carbohydrate, 5 grams protein, and 20 grams of fat?
Calories per gram of fat
9 Calories per gram
Calories per gram of carbohydrate
4 Calories per gram
Calories per gram of protein
4 calories per gram
Which of the following is most likely to improve satiety?
Recent recommendations suggest that we consume monounsaturated fats in the place of saturated fat. Which of the following items would achieve this goal?
- Canola Oil
The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scale called the:
- Glycemic index
To signal you are hungry, the digestive tract sends messages to the hypothalamus (in the brain) by way of:
-Hormones and Nerves
Mechanical digestion of foods includes all of the following actions...
- the pyloric valve at the stomach's lower end controlling the exit of chyme.
- the chewing of food to untrap nutrients.
- peristaltic waves that moves food down through the digestive tract.
Top 3 Leading Causes of Death in the U.S.
Heart disease, Cancer, and Strokes are all associated with____
- Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
- Number 1 killer in the US and it has a very strong diet and nutrition relationship. Men have a high chance of CVD and so do black people.
- Most common form of CVD
- What plaque builds up in the arteries is called.
- Hardening of the arteries.
- Soft fatty streaks on the inner walls of arteries, especially at the branch points.
Blood filled bulge in the wall of a blood vessel
Stationary blood clot
Stationary blood clot that has cut of the blood vessel
clot that breaks free and travels
When embolus becomes trapped in a smaller blood vessel
5 Kinds of Lipoprotein
2. VLDL (Very Low Density)
3. IDL (Intermediate Density)
4. LDL (Low Density)
5. HDL (High Density)
Roles of Lipoproteins
- Transport Triglycerides from Diet
- Transport Triglycerides from Liver
- Reverse Cholesterol Transport
Transport Triglycerides from Diet
Transport Triglycerides from Livee
Reverse Cholesterol Transport - carries cholesterol away from body cells to liver for disposal
Glucose's role in fat
Glucose is necessary for complete breakdown of fat
Daily Values of Fat Recommended
Less than 65g of fat
Less than 20g of saturated fat
Daily Values of Cholesterol Recommended
Less than 300 mg of cholesterol
Possibilities for How Vascular Injuries Happen
*Bacterial or viral infection
*Increased turbulence of blood branch points
Diet and physical activity will affect
Diet and physical activity in relation to CVD
saturated fatty acids
trans fatty acids
fruits and vegetables (soluble fiber)
Saturated Fatty Acids
Trans Fatty Acids
Poly and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
Increase tryglecerides which increases risk for heart disease
Functions of Cholesterol
1. Used by glads to synthesize hormones such as sex hormones
2. Liver uses cholesterol to produce bile
3. Main component of cell membrane structures
Healthy, lower blood cholesterol
Improves LDL/HDL ratio
Decrease damage in blood vessels. Vitamin E and C
Strengthen heart muscle and improves circulation
Lower blood pressure
Increase blood clotting
Increase vascular injuries
Dean Ornish Program and Forks over Knives
10% fat, whole foods vegetarian diet
Stress management training
Low saturated fats, but high in monounsaturated fats (olive oil and nuts)
Low in meat products
High in whole grains, fruits, vegetables
Emphasis on legumes (low fat, high fiber, protein, high minerals)
consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Types of Carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates - starch, fiber
Glycogen - animal storage of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates our main
Source of energy
Where does carbohydrates energy come from?
Overall, ___% of world's people are lactose intolerant
Polysaccharides are made up of:
long chains of monosaccharides
The difference between starch and fiber
- Human digestive enzymes can not break the bonds held together in fiber!
- Therefore, most fiber passes through the human body without providing energy.
Parts of a grain
all parts are milled
Only endosperm is milled
Which term refers to the process by which the coarse parts of grains are removed?
Which flour has been milled and refined?
Whatever lose nutrients
What is chyme?
Mixture of food and fluid in stomach
The digestion of which of the following nutrients stops when it reaches the stomach?
One of the body's major circulating fluids is:
Which of the following is used to emulsify fat?
T/F: The immune system is influenced by nutrition:
The hormones responsible for the release of glucose from the liver is:
Two major fluids are:
Blood and lymph
Body fluids supply
Energy, oxygen, nutrients, carry away waste materials
2 Types of Digestion
Mechanical and Chemical
The major site for digestion of food and absorption of nutrients is the:
Milk, Milk products, meat, fish, fruits, grains and vegetables
Source of energy
Types of Lipids
How many calories are in a food that contains 20 grams of carbohydrate, 5 grams protein, and 20 grams of fat?
A study conducted in Alaska where a high intake of fish was correlated with a low rate of cardiovascular disease death is an example of a(n)
______ are central to the formation of plaques in blood vessels that contribute to cardiovascular disease
Soluble fiber can be found in all of the following foods EXCEPT:
The hormone responsible for the release of glucose from the liver is:
Insulin is secreted by the ____ when blood glucose is _____ in order to take sugar out of the blood and into cells.
A protein that speeds up a specific chemical reaction without undergoing changes itself is:
What is the purpose of the microvilli in the small intestine?
to increase the surface area available to absorb nutrients
Some fiber is digested by bacteria in the
Which of the following are absorbed from the small intestine into the lymph:
Most nutrients are absorbed in the____and then transported through blood to the ___ which chemically alters nutrients to make them better suited for use by the tissues.
small intestine and liver
Which of the following does NOT occur as part of the flight or fight response?
The digestive system speeds up
When the pancreas detects a high concentration of blood glucose, it
Adequate circulation requires three components, one of which is:
good nutrition to replenish and supply the body with nutrients
The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting ____ to the blood system
What is used to emulsify fat?
Saliva contains an enzyme that breads down
Which organ of the body is responsible for converting absorbed monosaccharides into glucose
Insulin resistance is associated with
Type 2 Diabetes
What is not a symptom of Type 1 Diabetes?
Most carbohydrate digestion occurs in the
What is the storage form of glucose found in lover and muscle cells
T/F:Whole grains are unrefined and only the husk is removed
T/F: The fiber rich portion of the wheat kernel is the bran layer
What is the benefit of fiber?
Promotes feeling of fullness
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