38 terms

Chapter 10 Agricultural geography

concides with Reubenstin's textbook
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
Commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
Crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
Double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Seed of a cereal grass
Green revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
the outer covering of a seed
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah
Pastoral nomads
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Prime agricultural land
The most productive farmland
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
A machine that cuts grain standing in the field
Ridge tillage
System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
A flooded field for growing rice
Seed agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization
Shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Another form for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Spring wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Sustainable agriculture
the level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of township
Truck Farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Vegetative planting
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Wet rice
rice planted on dryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
Winter Wheat
Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer.