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Hormones 4: Stress systems
Terms in this set (21)
According to Dickerson & Kemeney, what types of stress activate the HPA vs. SNS?
(Social self-preservation system)
-Psychological threat involves social threat -> HPA
-Fear involves physical threat -> SNS
James P Herman: What are the 2 types of stressors?
-Reactive: pain, homeostatic signals, inflammation
(stressors that have already had an effect)
-Anticipatory: predators, unfamiliar environments, social challenges, classically conditioned stimuli (nothing has happened yet)
What do you need to measure stress?
-Measures of HPA activity: CRH, ACTH, Cortisol (corticosterone)
-Measures of SNS: adrenaline (epinephrine), Noradrenaline (norepinephrine), heart rate, blooc pressure...
What is the halflife of cortisol?
60-80min, easier to measure than SNS factors such as adrenaline (seconds)
What is alpha-amylase?
-sAA = digestive enzyme
-most apparent enzymes in saliva
-accounts for 40-50% total salivary gland-produced protein
-80% synthesized in parotid gland
Where is alpha-amylase produced?
Produced by acinar cells in saliva glands (synthesized in parotid gland)
How is alpha-amylase linked to SNS activity?
-sAA produced by acinar cells in saliva glands
-Acinar cells are innervated by both sympa. and parasympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system
-suggests co-innervation on the production of these enzymes
-sAA increases in release when SNS gets turned on
Rhythmic characteristics of the HPA
HPA stress axis
-Infradian (seasonal) rhythm: low levels in winter
-Peaking after awakening, declining levels during the day
-Lowest point around midnight
-Pulsatile release (ultradian)
-Secretory bursts every 90min
-Psychological stress can cause extra bursts at any time during the day
Hormones that have a second order feedback loop? How about 1st order?
2nd order: Prolactin, GH, MSH
1st order: oxytocin & vasopressin
Examples of third order feedback loops?
What's link of acute and chronic stress with cognitive decline?
-Supposed to be mediated via HPA effectors
-Neurotoxic effects of glucocorticoids in the brain
-Allostatic load = glucocorticoid cascade
What is YIPS?
Yale interpersonal stressor
-Emphasize social component (going from TSST)
-need to perform with a group of subjects u just met, but 2 confederates ignore you
Dexamethasone/TSST paradigm: what happens to cortisol levels, heart rate, and subjective stress?
-Dexamethasone suppresses HPA activity
-Cortisol is at lowest level, but CNS activity shoots up
So, suppressed HPA -> Activated CNS (heart rate), AND more subjective stress
Social stress/physical stress cross-talk, suppressing one turns on the other
What happens when you're given DEX/PRO and asked to rate perceived threat when looking at a man w/ diff emotions?
-Perception of threat doubles
-When you suppress both SNS and HPA, body realizes it doesn't have any resources left -> defense type mechanism
-You perceive more threat so you don't engage in anything new, bc your body has nothing left
What is the effect of dexamethasone?
Given night before suppresses hPA system completely next day
What's the function of the orbitofrontal cortex?
Self-referential thought, where you are at this moment in time
What puts someone most at risk of HPA hyperactivity and depression?
Early life stress = risk factor
-It sensitizes, you start by being hyperactive but comes at a price where eventually your systems burn out = blunting
Effect of glucocorticoid injection on memory?
-Enhance memory consolidation
-Impair memory retrieval
What is propanolol?
Suppress noradrenergic activity in amygdala
Suppress SNS, decrease heart rate
What is the state of HPA activation for PTSD vs. Depression?
-PTSD: Lower activation, hypoactive, down-regulated
-Depression: hyperactivity of HPA
Which structures are engaged during psychological/anticipatory vs. physical stressors?
-Physical: brainstem, amygdala
-Psychological: Limbic system (hippo, oPFC, vlPFC, mPFC, ACC)
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