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an area organized into a political uint and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs.


independence from control of its internal affairs by other states


states with very small land area


a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside


a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent.


the effort by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on such territory


control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society


an invisible line marking the extent of a state's territory

Compact State

the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly

Prorupted State

an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension

Elongated State

states with a long and narrow shape

Fragmented State

includes several discontinuous pieces of territory

Perforated State

a state that completely surrounds another one

Landlocked State

lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by several other countries


a zone where no state exercises complete political control

Unitary State

places most power in the hands of central government officials

Federal State

allocates strong power to units of local government within the country


the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power


the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands


"students of Muslim religious schools"

Pan-Arab Nationalism

belief that several hundred million arabs living in the vast territory between North Africa and Central Asia should be joined together into one powerful nation-state

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