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Terms in this set (67)
1)the force applied to a unit area of surface
2)the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
1)a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an 2)acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec to a mass of 1 kilogram
the SI unit of force
1)an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure, 2)measures air pressure
millimeters of mercury
1)a unit of pressure,
2)a common unit of pressure
atmosphere of pressure
1)the pressure of Earth's atmosphere at sea level;exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg,
2)exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg
1)a unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter,
2)the SI unit of pressure
1)the pressure of each gas in a mixture,
2)the contribution each gas in a mixture of gases makes to the total pressure
dalton's law of partial pressures
1)states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture,
2)At constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
1)The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.,
2)describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed container
1)The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.,
2)the temperature at which no more energy can be removed from matter
1)the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases,
2)A principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure
1)the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature, 2)P1/T1=P2/T2
combined gas law
2)the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas
Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes of gases
1)at constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers,
2)the law that states that the volumes of gases involved in a chemical change can be represented by a ratio of small whole numbers
1)the law that states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules,
2)Equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules
standard molar volume of a gas
1)the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP
ideal gas law
1)PV = nRT,
2)law that states the math relationship of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), the gas constant (R), and the number of moles of a gas (n)
ideal gas constant
1)the constant in the ideal gas law with the symbol R and the value is 8.31 (L
2)an experimentally determined constant whose value in the ideal gas equation depends on the units that are used for pressure
Graham's law of effusion
1)states that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass,
2)The rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass
Spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
A process by which gas particles pass through tiny openings
Collisions between gas particles, other particles, and container walls-with no net loss of kinetic energy
Liquids or gases that flow
An imaginary gas that perfectly fits all assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory
A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
(Atm) Define as equivalent to 760mm Hg
A device used to measure atmospheric pressure
Millimeter of Mercury
Symbolized mm Hg
(N) A force that increases the speed of one kilogram (mass) by one meter per second each time it is applied
(P) The force per unit area on a surface
Standard Temperature & Pressure
(STP) Standard condition of atm pressure and zero degrees Celsius
A given zero on the Kelvin scale
The volume of a fix mass of a gas at constant pressure varies inversly with pressure and temp.
The volume of a fixed mass of gas at a constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temp.
Total pressure of the mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the particle pressures of the component gases
simple mathematical relationships between the volume, temp., pressure, and the amount of gas
The fixed amount of gases' pressure depends on the Kelvin scale
The pressure of each gas in a mixture
calculations involving the mass relationships of elements in compounds
calculations involving the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
a conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
the substance that controls the quantity of product that can form in a chemical reaction
the substance that is not used up completely in a reaction
the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant
the measured amount of a product of a reaction
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100
represents, with symbols and formulas, the identities and relative molecular or molar amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that separates from the solution
a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation
an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by words
represents the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas
a chemical reaction in which the products re-form the original reactants
known as a composition reaction, two or more substances combine to form a new compound
a chemical reaction in which a single compound undergoes a reaction that produces two or more simpler substances
the decomposition of a substance by an electric current
single-displacement reaction / replacement reaction
chemical reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound
chemical reaction in which the ions of two compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds
chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the from of light and heat;
combustion synthesis generates its own energy to keep the reaction continuing
a list of elements organized according to the ease with which the elements undergo certain chemical reactions;
for metals, greater activity means a greater ease of loss of electrons to form positive ions;
for nonmetals, greater activity means a greater ease of gain of electrons, to form negative ions.
Indications of a Chemical Reaction
1. Evolution of energy as heat and light.
2. Production of a gas.
3. Formation of a precipitate.
4. Color change.
Characteristics of Chemical Equations
1. The equation must represent know facts.
2. The equation must contain the correct formulas for the reactants and products.
3. The law of conservation of mass must be satisfied.
Significance of a Chemical Equation
1. The coefficients of a chemical reaction indicate relative, not absolute, amounts of reactants and products.
2. The relative masses of the reactants and products of a chemical reaction can be determined from the reaction's coefficients.
3. The reverse reaction for a chemical equation has the same relative amounts of substances as the forward reaction.
Balancing Chemical Equations
1. Identify the names of the reactants and products, and write a word equation.
2. Write a formula equation by substituting correct formulas for the names of the reactants and the products.
3. Balance the formula equation according to the law of conservation of mass. - see steps on pg. 271
4. Count atoms to be sure that the equation is balanced.
1. Decomposition of binary compounds - the simpiliest type of decomposition reaction.
2. Decomposition of metal carbonates
3. Decomposition of metal hydroxides
4. Decomposition of metal chlorates
5. Decomposition of acids
1. Displacement of a metal in a compound by another metal
2. Displacement of hydrogen in water by a metal
3. Displacement of hydrogen in an acid by a metal
4. Displacement of halogens
1. Formation of a precipitate
2. Formation of a gas
3. Formation of water
Neon gas is in a 1.00 L container at a pressure of 1.00 atm and a temperature of 10.0 degrees celcius. How many moles of Neon gas are in the container?
What was the basic character of Earth's atmosphere from the mid to late Precambrian (i.e., during the boring billion)?
What is the most sensitive tissue?
Satellite data has shown that the earth's temperature has increased over the past few decades.
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