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Organizational Behavior Chapter 2
Terms in this set (41)
MARS Model of Individual Behavior and Results
p. 34 Motivation, Ability, Role perceptions, Situational factors
p. 35 The forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity (amount of effort applied to goal), and persistence of applying to goal. Voluntary. Goal directed. Motivated by Internal forces.
p. 35 The natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task.
p. 35 Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance.
p. 36 The extent to which employees understand the job duties or roles which they are assigned to. Important for both employee and employer to understand. Employee should understand: specific tasks to perform, priority of tasks, preferred behaviors to perform tasks
p. 37 Conditions beyond the employee's immediate control that constrain or facilitate behavior and performance. Time ,budge, facilities, economy, ques by environment to employee - lack of safety signs.
Types of Individual Behavior
Counterproductive work behaviors
Joining/staying with the organization
p. 37. refers to goal-directed behaviors under the individual's control that support organizational objectives
p. 38 various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the org's social and psychological context. Companies excel when employees go the extra mile.
Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWBs)
pp. 38-39 Voluntary behaviors that have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the org. Harrassing coworkers, avoiding work
Joining and Staying with the Org
p. 39 Attending work at required times. Staying b/c of the benefits you receive or enjoy your work. Retain talent/reduce turnover
pp. 40-41 Attending work when one's capacity to work is significantly diminished by illness, fatigue, personal problems or other factors. Can be more serious than bein absent - can increase health risk to other co-cowrks
p. 41 The relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics. External, observable. Internal - inferred from behaviors.
Nature vs Nurture
p. 41 Heredity explains about 50% of behavioral tendencies and 30% of temperament. Nurture also influences social and learning. We become more stable as we age. Executive function (goal directed part of brain) steers behavior guided by our self-concept.
CANOE (Five Factor Model of Personality.
p. 42 -43
Openness to experience
p. 43 A personality dimension describing people who are focused, careful, organized, industrious, goal-oriented confident, dependable and self-disciplined. Conscientiousness and stability are strongest personality predictors of performance
p. 43 A personality dimension describing people with high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self consciousness. Insecure, tempermental
p.42 A personality dimension describing people who are outgoing, talkative, sociable and assertive. Energetic, Assertive. Linked to sales and mgt performance
Openness to experience.
p. 42 Imaginative, creative, unconventional, curious, nonconforming, autonomous, perceptive. Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change.
p. 43 Trusting, helpful, good-natured, considerate, tolerant, selfless, generous, flexible. Affective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
p. 44 Developed by Carl Jung. Designed to measure the elements of Jungian personality theory, particularly preferences regarding perceiving and Judging info.
Introvert vs Extrovert
Sensing (uses senses & facts) vs Intuition (uses insight and subjective experience
Thinking (rational, logical) vs Feeling (emotions, how affects others)
Orientation to External World:
Perceiving (flexible, spontaneous) vs. Judging (order and structure)
p. 47 Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations. What we ought to do. Moral compass.
p47 .hierarchy of values
Schwartz's Values Circumplex
Openness to Change - motivation to pursue innovative ways - self direction stimulation and hedonism
Conservation - opposite to change, preserves status quo; security, conformity, tradition
Self-enhancement - motivated by self-interest; achievement, power/dominance, hedonism
Self-transcendence - opposite of self-enhancement - motivation to promote welfare of others and nature. Universalism, Benevolence
Values and Behavior
pp. 48-49 Habitual behavior tends to be consistent with our values but our everyday conscious decisions and actions apply our values much less consistently. Behaviors are linked to values when:
1. Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation
2. Situation allows/encourages values
3. Mindful of our values
p. 49 how similar a person's values hierarchy is to the values hierarchy of the org.
Values - Person-Org Values Congruence
p. 49 when a person's values are similar to the org's dominant values.
Values - Organizational-Community Cogruence
p. 50 similarity of a org's dominant values with the prevailing values of the community.
Three Ethical Principles
p. 51 Utilitarianism - Greatest good for the greatest number of people
Individual Rights - Fundamental entitlements for society
Distributive Justice - people who are similar should receive similar benefits.
Ethics MORAL INTENSITY
p. 52 The degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical principles.
Ethics ETHICAL SENSITIVITY
p. 52 A personal characteristic that enables people to recognize the presence of an ethical issue and determine its relative importance.
Ethics Situational Influences
p. 52 Competitive pressure and other external factors
p. 52-53 Actively evaluate whether action violates values
Ethics - Supporting Ethical Behavior
pp 53-54 Code of Conduct, hotlines, training; ethical leadership and shared values.
Cross Cultural - Individualism
p. 54 extent to which we value independence and personal uniqueness, personal freedom, self-sufficient, self-control,
Cross Cultural - Collectivism
p. 54 extent to which we value our duty to groups which we belong to and to group harmony.
Cross-Cultural Power Distance
p. 56 The extent to which people accept unequal power distribution in a society. High Power value obedience to authority, like getting commands, prefer formal rules & authority to reduce conflict. Low power value equal power sharing, view relationship with boss and inter-dependence, not dependent.
Cross-Cultural UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
p. 56-57 cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture tolerate ambiguity (low uncertainty avoidance) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance).
Cross-Cultural - ACHIEVEMENT-NURTURING ORIENTATION
p. 56-57 A cross cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture emphasize competitive versus cooperative relations with other people. assertivness-high achievement/$ vs Nuturing, relationships, human interaction
Cross-Cultural Diversity in America
p. 58 Increasing surface level diversity in US. Also some deep level diversity- racial differences in individualism
Regional differences in deep level diversity such as openness to experience, neuroticism, collectivism due to
migration, local schools in regions, physical environment
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