Formerly known as the American Association of Retired Persons, AARP is the nation's leading organization for people age fifty and older. Founded in 1958 by retired educator Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus, it is a nonprofit, nonpartisan association with a membership of 40 million. It provides information, education, research, advocacy and community services through a nationwide network of local chapters and experienced volunteers. It focuses its work on consumer issues, economic security, work, health and independent living issues, and engages in legislative, judicial and consumer advocacy in these areas. I: AARP is considered a powerful lobbying group as well as a successful business, selling insurance, investment funds and other financial products. It is also an independent publisher, offering Modern Maturity magazine and the monthly AARP Bulletin. 1. A calculation tool used by sliding counters along rods or grooves, used to perform mathematical functions. In addition to calculating the basic functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, the abacus can calculate roots up to the cubic degree.2. A semi-annual accounting journal published and edited by the University of Sydney. Published in 1965, this journal covers all areas of accounting. I: It is believed that the abacus was first used by the Babylonians, as early as 2,400 B.C. Since that time, the physical structure of abaci have changed. However, the idea has survived almost five millenia, and is still being used today.The Chinese and Japanese use different finger techniques with their abaci. The Chinese use three fingers (thumb, index, and middle) to move the beads; while the Japanese only use their thumb and index fingers. Assets such as cash, stocks, bonds, mutual funds, uncashed checks, land, life insurance policies and the contents of safe deposit boxes that have been turned over to the state after several years of inactivity. Some states hold onto such property and allow the original owners and heirs to claim it indefinitely. In other states, if the property goes unclaimed for too long, it may become the state's property through a process known as escheatment. One purpose of abandoned property laws is to relieve the asset holder of liability. I: In the United States, state laws determine when an asset is legally considered abandoned. In Massachusetts, for example, a bank account that has seen no activity for more than three years will be turned over to the state, but owners can file a claim to collect their abandoned property at any time. To locate abandoned property, also called unclaimed property, individuals can do a free search through state-sponsored websites or they can contact the state treasury or comptroller's office. States may also try to locate owners of unclaimed property through letters and newspaper announcements. Categories of U.S. counties devised by AC Nielsen Company that are based on U.S. Census Bureau population data and proximity to major metropolitan areas. A counties are the largest U.S. counties by population, and D counties are the smallest. Counties are classified on the basis of data from the latest census, which takes place every 10 years. The county classification is used by marketing and advertising agencies, and advertisers in the preparation and analysis of advertising and media plans. I: A counties are classified as any county located in the 25 largest U.S. metropolitan areas, which will be the highest density. B counties are considered any county that is not an A county and has a population exceeding 150,000 or is part of a metropolitan area with a population over 150,000. C counties are seen as any county that is not classified as an A or B county, and has a population between 40,000 and 150,000. D counties are any county that not classified as an A, B or C county. A situation in which the rightful owner of a property, office or title has not yet been decided. Abeyance results when the current owner or holder does not declare a single current beneficiary. Instead, the new owner is determined through the outcome of a particular event at some time in the future. Thus, the ownership of the property, office, or title is left unfilled. Abeyance is derived from the Old French word "abeance." which means a longing or gaping, with future expectation. I: Many estates are placed in trusts with stipulations that must be fulfilled before ownership can be taken. For example, if a trust fund is to be given to a child once he or she finishes college, the funds are said to be in abeyance until the goal is reached. Abeyance also exists when there is no one who can easily declare future ownership. For example, a trust could be set up by a parent who has no grandchildren, but hopes to have grandchildren one day, and wishes to leave funds to them at some future date. Because these grandchildren do not yet exist, the proceeds would be held in abeyance until these children are born. The ability of a country, individual, company or region to produce a good or service at a lower cost per unit than the cost at which any other entity produces that good or service. Entities with absolute advantages can produce a product or service using a smaller number of inputs and/or using a more efficient process than another party producing the same product or service. I: Here are some examples of how absolute advantage works:
-The United States produces 700 million gallons of wine per year, while Italy produces 4 billion gallons of wine per year. Italy has an absolute advantage because it produces many more gallons of wine (the output) in the same amount of time (the input) as the United States.
-Jane can knit a sweater in 10 hours, while Kate can knit a sweater in 8 hours. Kate has an absolute advantage over Jane, because it takes her fewer hours (the input) to produce a sweater (the output).
An entity can have an absolute advantage in more than one good or service. Absolute advantage also explains why it makes sense for countries, individuals and businesses to trade with one another. Because each has advantages in producing certain products and services, they can both benefit from trade. For example, if Jane can produce a painting in 5 hours while Kate needs 9 hours to produce a comparable painting, Jane has an absolute advantage over Kate in painting. Remember Kate has an absolute advantage over Jane in knitting sweaters. If both Jane and Kate specialize in the products they have an absolute advantage in and buy the products they don't have an absolute advantage in from the other entity, they will both be better off.
The return that an asset achieves over a certain period of time. This measure looks at the appreciation or depreciation (expressed as a percentage) that an asset - usually a stock or a mutual fund - achieves over a given period of time. Absolute return differs from relative return because it is concerned with the return of a particular asset and does not compare it to any other measure or benchmark. I: In general, a mutual fund seeks to produce returns that are better that its peers, its fund category, and/or the market as a whole. This type of fund management is referred to as a relative return approach to fund investing. As an investment vehicle, an absolute return fund seeks to make positive returns by employing investment management techniques that differ from traditional mutual funds. Absolute return investment techniques include using short selling, futures, options, derivatives, arbitrage, leverage and unconventional assets.Alfred Winslow Jones is credited with forming the first absolute return fund in New York in 1949. In recent years, this so-called absolute return approach to fund investing has become one of the fastest growing investment products in the world and is more commonly referred to as a hedge fund. An economic theory that suggests that as demand or income increases in an economy, so does the investment made by firms. Furthermore, accelerator theory suggests that when demand levels result in an excess in demand, firms have two choices of how to meet demand.
Raise prices to cause demand to drop.
Increase investment to match demand.
The accelerator theory proposes that most companies choose to increase production thus increase their profits. The theory further explains how this growth attracts more investors, which accelerates growth. I: The accelerator theory was developed early in the twentieth century by Thomas Nixon Carver and Albert Aftalion, among others. Although this theory was conceived before Keynesian economics, it emerged just as the Keynesian theory came to dominate the economic mindset of the twentieth century. Critics argue that accelerator theory should not be used because it eliminates the possibility of controlling demand through price controls. However, empirical research on the accelerator theory has supported its use. The accelerator theory is interpreted to create economic policies. For example, would it be better to use tax cuts to create more disposable income for consumers who would then demand more products, or would it be faster to give those cuts to business, which will then be able to use more capital for growth? Every government and their economists create their own interpretation of accelerator theory and the questions it can be used to answer.
A type of option in which the payoff is structured to be either a fixed amount of compensation if the option expires in the money, or nothing at all if the option expires out of the money. The success of a binary option is thus based on a yes/no proposition, hence "binary". A binary option automatically exercises, meaning the option holder does not have the choice to buy or sell the underlying asset. I: Investors may find binary options attractive because of their apparent simplicity, especially since the investor must essentially only guess whether something specific will or will not happen. For example, a binary option may be as simple as whether the share price of ABC Company will be above $25 on November 22nd at 10:45 am. If ABC's share price is $27 at the appointed time, the option automatically exercises and the option holder gets a preset amount of cash.
Binary options are significantly different from vanilla options. They are occasionally traded on platforms regulated by the SEC and other regulatory agencies, but are most likely traded over the Internet on platforms existing outside of regulations. Because these platforms operate outside of regulations, investors are at greater risk of fraud. For example, a binary options trading platform may require the investor to deposit a sum of money to purchase the option. If the option expires out-of-the-money, meaning the investor chose the wrong proposition, the trading platform may take the entire sum of deposited money with no refund provided.
The maximum gain or loss on a derivative contract, such as options and futures contracts, that is allowed in any one trading session. The limits are imposed by the exchanges in order to protect against extreme volatility or manipulation within the markets. I: When daily trading limits have been reached, it is said to be a "locked market", and trading will halt for any trades that break the threshold or trading will close for that particular security.Daily trading limits can also be in place for currency trading, such as China's daily trading limit of 0.5% for the Chinese renminbi against the U.S. dollar. When a particular commodity or contract has reached the daily trading limit, it may be considered "limit up" or "limit down", depending on the direction of the day's move. Trading limits are much more important for derivatives than for stocks or bonds, for example, because so many investors use massive amounts of leverage to trade commodities, currencies and futures contracts. An asset which, by its nature, creates a substantial risk of liability to the asset owner. Dangerous assets include commercial real estate, motor vehicles and construction equipment. Risk of personal injury and/or property damage is higher with dangerous assets. For example, a truck, by its mere use, has the potential to cause physical harm to its occupant as well as bystanders. I: Because dangerous assets carry with them a greater risk of liability for personal injuries and property damage, for asset-protection purposes a single business entity should not own more than one dangerous asset. In addition, dangerous assets should not be commingled with safe assets. For example, if your limited liability company (LLC) owns your commercial real estate as well as your company's bank accounts, a person who is injured while on the property could sue the LLC and not only pursue the property to satisfy his/her claim, but the business bank accounts as well. Often, it's best to place a dangerous asset, such as your business property, in a separate entity, such as a real estate trust, with your safe assets held in a family limited partnership (FLP) or LLC. A former president, CEO and chairman of AT&T. He entered the telecommunications industry in 1981 with Sprint, where he worked his way up to president. Dorman has also been CEO of Concert, PointCast and Pacific Bell. When SBC acquired Pacific Bell, he became executive vice president at SBC. He became president of AT&T in December 2000 and was its chairman and CEO from 2002 to 2006, leaving the company shortly after its merger with SBC. I: Dorman was born in 1954 in Georgia and earned his bachelor of science degree with high honors from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1975. While at AT&T, Dorman worked to modernize the company's infrastructure, sell its services as bundles, make it the largest internet provider, pay down its debt and increase its stock value. Dorman has also served on the board of directors for Yum! Brands, CVS Caremark and Motorola (as non-executive chairman). A company's average payable period. Days payable outstanding tells how long it takes a company to pay its invoices from trade creditors, such as suppliers. DPO is typically looked at either quarterly or yearly.
The formula to calculate DPO is written as: ending accounts payable / (cost of sales/number of days). These numbers are found on the balance sheet and the income statement. I: Companies must strike a delicate balance with DPO. The longer they take to pay their creditors, the more money the company has on hand, which is good for working capital and free cash flow. But if the company takes too long to pay its creditors, the creditors will be unhappy. They may refuse to extend credit in the future, or they may offer less favorable terms. Also, because some creditors give companies a discount for timely payments, the company may be paying more than it needs to for its supplies. If cash is tight, however, the cost of increasing DPO may be less than the cost of foregoing that cash earlier and having to borrow the shortfall to continue operations.
Most companies' DPO is about 30, meaning that it takes them about a month to pay their vendors. DPO can vary by industry, and a company can compare its DPO to the industry average to see if it is paying its vendors too quickly or too slowly. If the industry standard is 45 days and the company has been paying its invoices in 15 days, it may want to stretch out its payment period to improve cash flow, as long as doing so won't mean losing a discount, getting hit with a price increase or harming the relationship with the vendor. DPO can vary significantly from year to year, company to company and industry to industry based on how well or how poorly the company, the industry and the overall economy are performing.
A business strategy in which a single business is broken into components, either to operate on their own, to be sold or to be dissolved. A de-merger allows a large company, such as a conglomerate, to split off its various brands to invite or prevent an acquisition, to raise capital by selling off components that are no longer part of the business's core product line, or to create separate legal entities to handle different operations. I: For example, in 2001, British Telecom conducted a de-merger of its mobile phone operations, BT Wireless, in an attempt to boost the performance of its stock. British Telecom took this action because it was struggling under high debt levels from the wireless venture. Another example would be a utility that separates its business into two components: one to manage the utility's infrastructure assets and another to manage the delivery of energy to consumers. The rate at which business proposals and investment pitches are being received by financiers such as investment bankers and venture capitalists. Rather than a rigid quantitative measure, the rate of deal flow is somewhat qualitative and is meant to provide an indication of whether business is good or bad. The state of the economy has a significant influence on the level of deal flow. Economic expansion and robust equity markets will usually generate healthy deal flow for most financiers, while a recession and/or sluggish equity markets may generate some deal flow for only the most established players. I: Deal flow can comprise many different types of proposals: venture funding, private placements, syndications, initial public offerings (IPO), mergers and acquisitions. While large investment banks can handle most of these activities, specialist financiers such as venture capitalists and angel investors will generally focus on deal flow only in their area of expertise.
While deal flow can be generated from a number of sources, the proposals that are likely to garner the most attention are the ones from companies or entrepreneurs where a previous investment has been successful, or where there is a solid existing relationship. On the other hand, unsolicited proposals from untried entities are likely to be given short shrift by most established financiers.
A person or firm in the business of buying and selling securities for their own account, whether through a broker or otherwise. A dealer is defined by the fact that it acts as principal in trading for its own account, as opposed to a broker who acts as an agent in executing orders on behalf of its clients. A dealer is also distinct from a trader in that buying and selling securities is part of its regular business, while a trader buys and sells securities for his or her own account but not on a business basis. I: While "dealer" is a separate registration category in the U.S., in Canada the term is used as the shortened version of "investment dealer," which is the equivalent of a broker-dealer in the U.S.
Apart from buying and selling securities, a dealer also makes markets in securities, underwrites securities and provides investment services to investors. Most dealers also act as brokers, and are therefore known as broker-dealers. Broker-dealers range in size from small independent houses to subsidiaries of the largest banks.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires that all brokers and dealers generally register with it, and also be members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). The SEC requires that individuals who engage in the following activities may need to register as a dealer:
Someone who holds himself/herself out as being willing to buy and sell a specific security on a continuous basis, i.e. is making a market in that security;
A person who runs a matched book of repurchase agreements; or
An individual who issues or originates securities that he or she also buys and sells.
The SEC requires dealers to perform certain duties in their dealings with clients. These duties include prompt order execution, disclosure of material information and conflicts of interest to investors, and charging prices that are reasonable in the prevailing market.
In recent years, the profitability of dealers has been challenged by a number of factors, including the heightened regulatory environment (which has increased compliance costs), increasing technology requirements to keep up with rapidly changing markets, and industry consolidation.
A financial market mechanism wherein multiple dealers post prices at which they will buy or sell a specific security of instrument. In a dealer market, a dealer - who is designated as a "market maker" - provides liquidity and transparency by electronically displaying the prices at which it is willing to make a market in a security, indicating both the price at which it will buy the security (the "bid" price) and the price at which it will sell the security (the "offer" price). Bonds and foreign exchange trade primarily in dealer markets, while stock trading on the Nasdaq is a prime example of an equity dealer market. I: A market maker in a dealer market stakes its own capital to provide liquidity to investors. The primary mode of risk control for the market maker is therefore the use of the bid-ask spread, which represents a tangible cost to investors.
For example, if Dealer A has ample inventory of WiseWidget Co. stock - which is quoted in the market by other market makers at $10 / $10.05 - and wishes to offload some of its holdings, it can post its bid-ask quote as $9.98 / $10.03. Rational investors looking to buy WiseWidget Co. would then take Dealer A's offer price of $10.03, since it is 2 cents cheaper than the $10.05 price at which it is offered by other market makers. Conversely, investors looking to sell WiseWidget Co. stock would have little incentive to "hit the bid" of $9.98 posted by Dealer A, since it is 2 cents less than the $10 price that other dealers are willing to pay for the stock.
A dealer market differs from an auction market primarily in this multiple market maker aspect. In an auction market, a single specialist in a centralized location (think of the trading floor on the New York Stock Exchange, for instance) facilitates trading and liquidity by matching buyers and sellers for a specific security.
A type of loan investors give to a company in exchange for convertible debt, which, like convertible bonds, typically has provisions that allow investors to convert the bonds into stock at below-market prices. This can cause the original shareholders to lose control of the company. I: This type of loan is undertaken by companies that desperately need cash. It is called a death spiral because companies' stocks often plunge drastically after they take on these types of loans. It is important to note that death spirals often allow buyers to convert the bonds into shares at a fixed conversion ratio in which the buyer has a large premium.For example, a bond with a face value of $1,000 may have a convertible value of $1,500, which means that a bondholder will receive $1,500 dollars worth of equity for giving up the $1,000 bond. However, upon a conversion, more shares are created, which dilutes the share price. This drop in price may cause more bond holders to convert, because the lower share price means that they will be receiving more shares. Any further conversions will cause more price drops as the supply of shares increases, causing the process to repeat itself as the stock's price spirals downward. A ratio that indicates what portion of a person's monthly income goes toward paying debts. Total monthly debt includes expenses such as mortgage payments (made up of PITI), credit-card payments, child support and other loan payments. Lenders use this ratio in conjunction with the front-end ratio to approve mortgages.
Also known as "debt-to-income ratio". I: For example, if your monthly income is $5,000 ($60,000/12) and your total monthly debt payments are $2,000, your back-end ratio is 0.40 or 40%. Generally, lenders like to see a back-end ratio that does not exceed 36%; however, there are lenders who make exceptions for ratios of up to 50% if you have good credit. Some lenders consider only this ratio when approving mortgages, as opposed to using it in conjunction with the front-end ratio.
An uncommon type of takeover in which the acquirer becomes a subsidiary of the acquired or targeted company, with business after the takeover conducted in the name of the acquired company. A backflip takeover gets its name from the fact that it runs counter to the norm of a conventional acquisition, where the acquirer is the surviving entity and the acquired company becomes a subsidiary of the acquirer.
While the acquired company's assets are subsumed into the acquiring company, control of the combined entity is generally in the hands of the acquirer. I: While companies may consider a backflip takeover for a number of valid reasons, a common motive for such a structure is much stronger brand recognition and goodwill for the target company than the acquirer in their major markets.
Often, the acquirer may be struggling with problems of its own. For instance, the acquirer may be a hitherto sizeable and successful company that has had its image tarnished by one or more negative issues such as a large product recall, well-publicized product deficiencies, accounting fraud and so on. These issues may significantly impede its future business prospects, leading it to consider other options for its long-term survival and success. One of these options is to acquire a rival company that has complementary businesses and sound prospects, but which needs significantly more financial and operational resources to expand than it could raise on its own.
For example, DullCo is a large company that has fallen on relatively hard times because the massive recall of one of its biggest-selling products has hurt its finances and caused large-scale customer defections. Management decides that its brand has suffered irreparable damage, and decides to use its financial resources - which are still substantial - to acquire smaller and fast-growing rival Hotshot Inc. DullCo's management also decides that business after the completed takeover will be conducted under the Hotshot name, which will be the surviving entity, with DullCo becoming a Hotshot subsidiary.
Why would Hotshot's management want to sell out to a larger, struggling competitor? Probably because Hotshot's executive team believes it can use DullCo's huge resources to expand faster than it could on its own. Hotshot's management is also very likely to bargain for a substantial presence on the Board of Directors and management of the combined entity.
Tax that is levied on investment income, at an established tax rate, as the investor withdraws it. Backup withholding helps to ensure that government tax-collecting agencies (such as the IRS or Canada Revenue Agency) will be able to receive income taxes owed to them from investors' earnings. Backup withholding may be applied when an investor has not met rules regarding taxpayer identification numbers (TIN). At the time the investor withdraws his or her investment income, the amount mandated by the backup withholding tax is remitted to the government, providing the tax-collecting body with the required funds immediately, but leaving the investor with less short-term cash flow. I: Investors commonly earn income - for example, interest payments, dividends, capital gains - from assets in which they have invested. While this income is taxable at the time it is received, the taxes owed on any calendar year's worth of investment income only come due once every year, during tax season.Thus, an investor could potentially spend all of his investment income before his annual income taxes come due, leaving him unable to pay taxes, and leaving the IRS with the difficult and expensive job of collecting the taxes owed. It is primarily this risk that motivates the government to sometimes require backup withholding taxes to be levied by financial institutions at the time investment income is earned. The process of deducing backwards from the end of a problem or scenario to infer a sequence of optimal actions in game theory. Backward induction starts at the final step in a game, and by anticipating what the last player in a two-player game will do at that point, determines what moves likely lead to it. The results inferred from backward induction often do not hold up in real life. Backward induction was first mentioned by game theory inventors John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern in 1944. I: There are several problems associated with the results obtained from backward induction. Firstly, it may not reflect how players in a game actually play, as the actual pattern of play may differ from the pattern deduced by backward induction. Secondly, people who play naively or illogically may actually end up obtaining higher payoffs or utilities than the payoffs predicted by backward induction in well-known game theory games such as Centipede and Traveler's Dilemma.
For example, the Centipede Game is an extensive-form game in which two players alternately get a chance to take the larger share of a stash of money from two piles of money (contributed by a third party). Each time the money passes across the table, the quantity doubles. The game concludes as soon as a player takes the stash, with that player getting the larger portion and the other player getting the smaller portion. A total of 99 rounds are played, and if both players always choose to pass (rather than take), they each receive an equal payoff of $50 at the end of the game.
Backward induction predicts that the first player will choose to take on the very first move. However, in experimental studies, only a very small percentage of subjects chose to take on the first move, which is intuitively not surprising given the tiny starting payoff when compared with the much larger payoffs as the game progresses.
The dominant Chinese internet search engine company. Baidu offers many of the same products and services as Google, but is primarily focused on China, where it controls the majority of the search market. Baidu censors search results and other content in accordance with Chinese regulations. Baidu is registered in the Cayman Islands and is listed on the Nasdaq under ticker symbol BIDU. I: Baidu offers a wide array of products, including maps, news, video, encyclopedia, anti-virus, and internet TV. Baidu generates revenue with an ad revenue system very similar to Google's. Advertisers bid on the keywords that will trigger the display of their ads. Advertisers can also pay for priority placement in search results. Baidu competes with Google Hong Kong, Yahoo! China, Microsoft Bing and many other regional players. A written promise signed by a defendant and surety to ensure that a criminal defendant will appear in court at the scheduled time and date, as ordered by the court. The bail amount is set by the court.
The process starts with a defendant being released on bail; the bail is paid by a surety (bail bond agent or bondsman), who usually collects a percentage of the amount of bail. In order to pay the bail, so that the defendant can be released while awaiting trial on criminal charges, the agent might require collateral in the form of valuable property, securities or a statement of creditworthiness. I: Bonds over $1,000 usually cost 10% of the bond. For example, if bail is set at $20,000, the premium would be $2,000. Additional fees may also be added. The goal of a bail bond is to prevent abuse of the appeal process, where the intent for appeal is for a reason other than that for which it is intended. If the defendant fails to appear in court, the cash bond is paid to the court and the collateral is collected by the bond agency, including any other related fees.
Insurance coverage for legal liability resulting from damage or destruction of a bailor's property while temporarily under the care or custody of a bailee. A bailee is a person or organization that has temporary possession of someone else's personal property (dry cleaner, parking valet, jewelers, repairers, etc.)The coverage includes property that is on, or in transit to and from, the bailee's premises. Events and perils covered include fire, lightning, theft, burglary, robbery, explosion, collision, flood, earthquake and damage or destruction in the course of transportation by a carrier. The insurance is in effect when the bailee issues a receipt to the bailor for the item. Coverage excludes property belonging to the insured bailee and loss due to vermin and insects. I: When a customer (bailor) takes a suit to the dry cleaner to be cleaned, the suit is temporarily under the control of the bailee (dry cleaner). The bailor expects the suit to be returned in good condition. If the suit is stolen from the cleaner or is damaged while under the care of the cleaner, the insurance would cover the loss. A scenario in which a government or profitable company acquires control of a financially unstable company with the goal of returning it to a position of financial strength. In a bailout takeover, the government or strong company takes over the weak company by purchasing its shares, exchanging shares or both. The acquiring entity develops a rehabilitation plan for the weak company, describing how it will be managed and by whom, how shareholders will be protected and how its financial position will be turned around. I: An example of a bailout takeover is NPNC Financial Services' 2008 takeover of National City Corp. National City experienced massive losses because of the subprime mortgage crisis, and PNC used TARP funds to bail it out. PNC purchased about $5.2 billion in National City's stock to acquire it; some people said the purchase price was less than National City's fair market value. PNC became the fifth-largest U.S. bank as a result of the bailout takeover, but numerous National City employees lost their jobs at the bank's headquarters.
Another example of a bailout takeover is the U.S. government's takeover of Chrysler and General Motors in 2008 to prevent the companies' bankruptcy and the subsequent loss of approximately 1 million jobs in the industry. Under the takeover's terms, the government loaned the two companies $17.4 billion and required them to reduce their debt, decrease workers' wages and benefits, and create restructuring plans. The government retained the ability to call the loans if the companies didn't uphold their end of the bargain. The companies later received additional funds from the government, but they were forced through bankruptcy anyway, causing both stockholders and bondholders to lose everything. The bailout was criticized as primarily benefiting labor unions since workers kept their jobs but investors lost everything.
A statement that summarizes an economy's transactions with the rest of the world for a specified time period. The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments, encompasses all transactions between a country's residents and its nonresidents involving goods, services and income; financial claims on and liabilities to the rest of the world; and transfers such as gifts. The balance of payments classifies these transactions in two accounts - the current account and the capital account. The current account includes transactions in goods, services, investment income and current transfers, while the capital account mainly includes transactions in financial instruments. An economy's balance of payments transactions and international investment position (IIP) together constitute its set of international accounts. I: Despite its name, the "balance of payments" data is not concerned with actual payments made and received by an economy, but rather with transactions. Since many international transactions included in the balance of payments do not involve the payment of money, this figure may differ significantly from net payments made to foreign entities over a period of time.
Does the "balance of payments" actually balance? In theory, a current account deficit would have to be financed by a net inflow in the capital and financial account, while a current account surplus should correspond to an outflow in the capital and financial account for a net figure of zero. In actual practice, however, the fact that data are compiled from multiple sources gives rise to some degree of measurement error.
Balance of payments and international investment position data are critical in formulating national and international economic policy. Certain aspects of the balance of payments data, such as payment imbalances and foreign direct investment, are key issues that a nation's economic policies seek to address.
Economic policies are often targeted at specific objectives that, in turn, impact the balance of payments. For example, a country may adopt policies specifically designed to attract foreign investment in a particular sector. Another nation may attempt to keep its currency at an artificially depressed level to stimulate exports and build up its currency reserves. The impact of these policies is ultimately captured in the balance of payments data.
Don't stop now! Broaden your knowledge of the balance of payments by reading our article on What Is The Balance Of Payments?
The difference between a country's imports and its exports. Balance of trade is the largest component of a country's balance of payments. Debit items include imports, foreign aid, domestic spending abroad and domestic investments abroad. Credit items include exports, foreign spending in the domestic economy and foreign investments in the domestic economy. A country has a trade deficit if it imports more than it exports; the opposite scenario is a trade surplus.Also referred to as "trade balance" or "international trade balance." I: The balance of trade is one of the most misunderstood indicators of the U.S. economy. For example, many people believe that a trade deficit is a bad thing. However, whether a trade deficit is bad thing is relative to the business cycle and economy. In a recession, countries like to export more, creating jobs and demand. In a strong expansion, countries like to import more, providing price competition, which limits inflation and, without increasing prices, provides goods beyond the economy's ability to meet supply. Thus, a trade deficit is not a good thing during a recession but may help during an expansion. A fund that combines a stock component, a bond component and, sometimes, a money market component, in a single portfolio. Generally, these hybrid funds stick to a relatively fixed mix of stocks and bonds that reflects either a moderate (higher equity component) or conservative (higher fixed-income component) orientation. I: A balanced fund is geared toward investors who are looking for a mixture of safety, income and modest capital appreciation. The amounts that such a mutual fund invests into each asset class usually must remain within a set minimum and maximum.
Although they are in the "asset allocation" family, balanced fund portfolios do not materially change their asset mix. This is unlike life-cycle, target-date and actively managed asset-allocation funds, which make changes in response to an investor's changing risk-return appetite and age, or overall investment market conditions.
An acronym introduced by Spanish bank BBVA in 2010 to describe the emerging and growth-leading economies of Korea, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, Egypt and Taiwan along with the BRIC countries Brazil, Russia, India and China. BBVA expected these countries to generate 50% of the global economic growth through 2020, whereas it expected the G7 countries of France, Germany, the United States, Canada, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom to generate just 14%. I: In contrast to the BRIC acronym, which represents specific countries, the EAGLE acronym represents a type of economy and thus allows for the adding and dropping of countries as economic conditions evolve. BBVA anticipated that Nigeria, Poland, South Africa, Thailand, Colombia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Argentina, Peru and the Philippines could join the EAGLEs as their economies develop further. An income-producing investment that is owned by a business, institution or individual. Earning assets include stocks, bonds, income from rental property, certificates of deposit (CDs) and other interest or dividend earning accounts or instruments.
Income from earning assets must be reported on the appropriate tax filings. Institutions send yearly statements for tax reporting purposes that include the total amount of interest and/or dividends earned. Income from rental properties must also be declared. I: Some earning assets, such as certificates of deposit, require no additional effort once the initial investment is made. Others, such as rental properties, require ongoing effort in terms of time and money. In the case of rental property, this could include routine maintenance, improvements, taxes and insurance, and general management of the property.
A measure of the earnings of a company that adds the interest expense, depreciation and amortization back to the net income number, but takes the tax expense into consideration. This measure is not as well known or used as often as its counterpart, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA). I: EBIDA is considered to be a more conservative valuation measure than EBIDTA because it includes the tax expense in the earnings measure. The EBIDA measure removes the assumption that the money paid in taxes could be used to pay down debt, an assumption made in EBIDTA. This debt payment assumption is made because interest payments are tax deductible, which, in turn, may lower the company's tax expense, giving it more money to service its debt. EBIDA, however, does not make the assumption that the tax expense can be lowered through the interest expense and, therefore, does not add it back to net income. An indicator of a company's financial performance, which is calculated as:
This measure attempts to gauge a firm's profitability before any legally required payments, such as taxes and interest on debt, are paid. Depreciation is removed because this is an expense the firm records, but does not necessarily have to pay in cash. I: EBITD is very similar to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA), but excludes amortization.
The difference between amortization and depreciation is subtle, but worth noting. Depreciation relates to the expensing of the original cost of a tangible assets over its useful life, while amortization is the expense of an intangible asset's cost over its useful life. Intangible assets include, but are not limited to, goodwill and patents, and are unlikely to represent a large expense for most firms.
Using either the EBITD or EBITDA measures should yield similar results.
A financial measure that is an indicator of a company's operating performance. EBIAT, which is equivalent to after-tax EBIT measures a company's profitability without taking into account the capital structure, i.e., the ratio of debt to equity. EBIAT takes taxes into account because they are viewed as an ongoing expense that is beyond a company's control, especially if it is profitable. EBIAT is not as commonly used in financial analysis as the EBITDA measure. EBIAT is calculated as: EBIT x (1 - Tax rate). I: As an example, consider a company that has the following income statement:
EBIT $1,000,000 Interest $100,000 EBT $900,000 Taxes (25%) $225,000 Net Income $675,000
The company's EBIAT in this case would be: $1,000,000 x (1 - 0.25) = $750,000.
An indicator of a company's financial performance which is calculated in the following EBITDA calculation:
EBITDA is essentially net income with interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization added back to it, and can be used to analyze and compare profitability between companies and industries because it eliminates the effects of financing and accounting decisions. I: This is a non-GAAP measure that allows a greater amount of discretion as to what is (and is not) included in the calculation. This also means that companies often change the items included in their EBITDA calculation from one reporting period to the next.
EBITDA first came into common use with leveraged buyouts in the 1980s, when it was used to indicate the ability of a company to service debt. As time passed, it became popular in industries with expensive assets that had to be written down over long periods of time. EBITDA is now commonly quoted by many companies, especially in the tech sector - even when it isn't warranted.
A common misconception is that EBITDA represents cash earnings. EBITDA is a good metric to evaluate profitability, but not cash flow. EBITDA also leaves out the cash required to fund working capital and the replacement of old equipment, which can be significant. Consequently, EBITDA is often used as an accounting gimmick to dress up a company's earnings. When using this metric, it's key that investors also focus on other performance measures to make sure the company is not trying to hide something with EBITDA.
Understand th EBITDA with practical examples by reading A Clear Look at EBITDA and EBITDA: Challenging the Calculation
A non-GAAP indicator of a company's financial performance calculated as:
= Revenue - Expenses (excluding tax, interest, depreciation, amortization and restructuring or rent costs)Depending on the company and the goal of the user, the indicator can either include restructuring costs or rent costs, but usually not both. The EBITDAR indicator expands on EBITDA by adding an additional excluded item to give a better indication of financial performance. I: Rent is included in the measure when evaluating the financial performance of companies, such as casinos or restaurants, that have significant rental and lease expenses derived from business operations. By excluding these expenses, it is easier to compare one company to another and get a clearer picture of their operational performance.
Restructuring is included in the measure when a company has gone through a restructuring plan and has incurred costs from the plan. These costs, which are included on the income statement, are usually seen as nonrecurring and are excluded to give a better idea of the company's ongoing operations.
When corporate earnings per share (EPS) growth is accelerating or decelerating from the prior fiscal quarter or fiscal year. Earnings momentum typically coincides with accelerating revenues and/or expanding margins caused by increased sales, cost improvements or overall market expansion. I: Because of the quarterly reporting system required by the SEC, most earnings momentum analysis will rely on quarterly data, as the smaller reporting period can highlight momentum more clearly if it exists. Investors are always on the lookout for positive earnings momentum, as it will usually propel a stock price higher over time, depending on how anticipated the momentum is. Earnings multiples (as in the P/E ratio) are the foundation for most stock prices, and if earnings are increasing at a faster clip than expected, then current multiples can quickly appear too low. As a result, investors will bid up the stock to reach a new level of equilibrium. On the other hand, if earnings momentum falls away, the price of the underlying stock may drop despite the fact that earnings as a whole are still increasing. The use of accounting techniques to produce financial reports that may paint an overly positive picture of a company's business activities and financial position. Earnings Management takes advantage of how accounting rules can be applied and are legitimately flexible when companies can incur expenses and recognize revenue.
It can be difficult to differentiate these allowable practices from earnings fraud or manipulation. Earnings management theoretically represents this gray area, but it is often used as a synonym for earnings manipulation or earnings fraud. I: Companies use earnings management to smooth out fluctuations in earnings and/or to meet stock analysts' earnings projections. Large fluctuations in income and expenses may be a normal part of a company's operations, but the changes may alarm investors who prefer to see stability and growth, tempting managers to take advantage of accounting gimmicks. Also, a company's stock price will often rise or fall after an earnings announcement, depending on whether it meets, exceeds or falls short of expectations.
Management can feel pressure to manipulate the company's accounting practices and, consequently, its financial reports in order to meet these expectations and keep the company's stock price up. If earning management is considered excessive, the SEC may issue fines as a punishment, but it still can be difficult for investors to identify the companies misrepresentations.
The portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock. Earnings per share serves as an indicator of a company's profitability.
When calculating, it is more accurate to use a weighted average number of shares outstanding over the reporting term, because the number of shares outstanding can change over time. However, data sources sometimes simplify the calculation by using the number of shares outstanding at the end of the period.
Diluted EPS expands on basic EPS by including the shares of convertibles or warrants outstanding in the outstanding shares number. I: Earnings per share is generally considered to be the single most important variable in determining a share's price. It is also a major component used to calculate the price-to-earnings valuation ratio.
For example, assume that a company has a net income of $25 million. If the company pays out $1 million in preferred dividends and has 10 million shares for half of the year and 15 million shares for the other half, the EPS would be $1.92 (24/12.5). First, the $1 million is deducted from the net income to get $24 million, then a weighted average is taken to find the number of shares outstanding (0.5 x 10M+ 0.5 x 15M = 12.5M).
An important aspect of EPS that's often ignored is the capital that is required to generate the earnings (net income) in the calculation. Two companies could generate the same EPS number, but one could do so with less equity (investment) - that company would be more efficient at using its capital to generate income and, all other things being equal, would be a "better" company. Investors also need to be aware of earnings manipulation that will affect the quality of the earnings number. It is important not to rely on any one financial measure, but to use it in conjunction with statement analysis and other measures.
For more on EPS read The 5 Different Types Of Earnings Per Share (EPS) and How To Evaluate The Quality Of EPS
A financial performance measure that stands for earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, rent and management fees. EBITDARM is used in comparison to more common measures such as EBITDA when a company's rent and management fees represent a larger-than-normal percentage of operating costs. I: EBITDARM is not a measure in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), but is instead used for internal analysis and for presentation to investors and creditors. It is also reviewed by credit rating agencies when assessing a company's overall debt servicing ability and credit rating, which is an important factor, as many of the companies who present this measure carry high debt loads. EBITDARM is most likely to be found in the statements of a healthcare company, such as a hospital or nursing facility operator. Industries such as these often lease the spaces they use, so rent fees can become a major operating cost. EBITDARM may be measured against rent fees to see how effective capital allocation decisions are within the company, and to review its ability to service debt. Measures like EBITDARM are most informative to investors if they are examined in conjunction with net earnings and more refined non-GAAP measures like EBITDA and EBIT. The state of the economy in a country or region. Economic conditions change over time in line with the economic and business cycle, as an economy goes through expansion and contraction. Economic conditions are considered to be sound or positive when an economy is expanding, and are considered to be adverse or negative when an economy is contracting. A country's economic conditions are influenced by numerous macroeconomic and microeconomic factors, including monetary and fiscal policy, the state of the global economy, unemployment levels, productivity, exchange rates, inflation and so on. I: There are numerous economic indicators that are used to define the state of the economy or economic conditions. Some of these are the unemployment rate, levels of current account and budget surpluses or deficits, GDP growth rates, inflation rates and more. Economic data is released on a regular basis, generally weekly or monthly, and sometimes quarterly. Some economic indicators like the unemployment rate and GDP growth rate are watched closely by market participants, as they help to make an assessment of economic conditions and potential changes in them. A relatively new form of derivative contract (the first ones were traded in 2002) that is based on the future value of some national economic indicator, such as non-farm payrolls, the purchasing manager's index, retail sales levels and the gross domestic product. Most of these economic derivatives are in the form of binary or "digital" options, whereby the only payout options are full payout (in the money) or nothing at all (out of the money). Other types of contracts currently traded include capped vanilla options and forwards.Economic derivatives have become attractive for their ability to mitigate some of the market and basis risks found in standard investment vehicles. I: For example, a binary option trading on the GDP would pay its face value if, when the official GDP release is made (the exercise date), the GDP value falls within a specific range (strike range). If the GDP figure is outside of this range, the option expires worthless. By looking at the implied probabilities of different outcomes, economists and investors can compare economic derivatives to Wall Street estimates and look for discrepancies between the two estimations. As might be expected, the market-driven process seen in derivatives pricing has shown itself to be the more consistently accurate predictor of future indicator release values. The unlawful targeting and theft of a nation's critical economic intelligence. Economic espionage may include the clandestine acquisition or outright theft of invaluable proprietary information in a number of areas including technology, finance and government policy. Economic espionage differs from corporate or industrial espionage in a number of ways - it is likely to be state-sponsored, have motives other than profit or gain (such as closing a technology gap) and be much larger in scale and scope. Recognizing the threat from such activity, the U.S. signed the Economic Espionage Act into law in October 1996. I: According to the FBI, foreign competitors conduct economic espionage in three main ways:
By recruiting insiders working for U.S. companies and research institutions that typically share the same national background.
Using methods such as bribery, cyber-attacks, "dumpster diving" and wiretapping.
Establishing seemingly innocent relationships with U.S. companies to gather economic intelligence including trade secrets.
The FBI recommends that to counter this threat, companies should take a number of steps that include implementing a proactive plan to safeguard trade secrets, securing physical and electronic versions of intellectual property, and training employees.
In November 2011, the U.S. accused China of being the world's "most active and persistent" perpetrator of economic espionage, and also identified Russia as one of the most aggressive collectors of U.S. economic information and technology. The problem's scale was evident in subsequent media reports that said hundreds of leading U.S. companies had been targeted by overseas entities for economic espionage.
A type of foreign exchange exposure caused by the effect of unexpected currency fluctuations on a company's future cash flows. Also known as operating exposure, economic exposure can have a substantial impact on a company's market value, since it has far-reaching effects and is long-term in nature.
Unlike transaction exposure and translation exposure (the two other types of currency exposure), economic exposure is difficult to measure precisely and hence challenging to hedge. Economic exposure is also relatively difficult to hedge because it deals with unexpected changes in foreign exchange rates, unlike expected changes in currency rates, which form the basis for corporate budgetary forecasts. I: For example, assume that a large U.S. company that gets about 50% of its revenues from overseas markets has factored in a gradual decline of the U.S. dollar against major global currencies - say 2% per annum - into its operating forecasts for the next few years. If the U.S. dollar appreciates instead of declining gradually in the years ahead, this would represent economic exposure for the company. The dollar's strength means that the 50% of revenues and cash flows the company receives from overseas will be lower when converted back into dollars, which will have a negative effect on its profitability and valuation.
Increasing globalization has made economic exposure a source of greater risk for companies. The degree of economic exposure is directly proportional to currency volatility. Economic exposure increases as foreign exchange volatility rises, and decreases as it falls.
Economic exposure is obviously greater for multinational companies that have numerous subsidiaries overseas and a huge number of transactions involving foreign currencies. However, economic exposure can arise for any company regardless of its size and even if it only operates in domestic markets.
For example, small European manufacturers that only sell in their local markets and do not export their products would be adversely affected by a stronger euro, since it would make imports from other jurisdictions such as Asia and North America cheaper and increase competition in European markets.
Economic exposure can be mitigated either through operational strategies or currency risk mitigation strategies. Operational strategies involve diversification - of production facilities, end-product markets and financing sources, since currency effects may offset each other to some extent if a number of different currencies are involved. Currency risk-mitigation strategies involve matching currency flows, risk-sharing agreements and currency swaps.
An economic arrangement between different regions marked by the reduction or elimination of trade barriers and the coordination of monetary and fiscal policies. The aim of economic integration is to reduce costs for both consumers and producers, as well as to increase trade between the countries taking part in the agreement. I: There are varying levels of economic integration, including preferential trade agreements (PTA), free trade areas (FTA), customs unions, common markets and economic and monetary unions. The more integrated the economies become, the fewer trade barriers exist and the more economic and political coordination there is between the member countries.
By integrating the economies of more than one country, the short-term benefits from the use of tariffs and other trade barriers is diminished. At the same time, the more integrated the economies become, the less power the governments of the member nations have to make adjustments that would benefit themselves. In periods of economic growth, being integrated can lead to greater long-term economic benefits; however, in periods of poor growth being integrated can actually make things worse.
The difference between the revenue received from the sale of an output and the opportunity cost of the inputs used. This can be used as another name for "economic value added" (EVA). I: Don't confuse this with 'accounting profit', which is what most people generally mean when they refer to profit.
In calculating economic profit, opportunity costs are deducted from revenues earned. Opportunity costs are the alternative returns foregone by using the chosen inputs. As a result, you can have a significant accounting profit with little to no economic profit.
For example, say you invest $100,000 to start a business, and in that year you earn $120,000 in profits. Your accounting profit would be $20,000. However, say that same year you could have earned an income of $45,000 had you been employed. Therefore, you have an economic loss of $25,000 (120,000 - 100,000 - 45,000).
The nominal value or dollar value of a security stated by the issuer. For stocks, it is the original cost of the stock shown on the certificate. For bonds, it is the amount paid to the holder at maturity (generally $1,000). Also known as "par value" or simply "par." I: In bond investing, face value, or par value, is commonly referred to the amount paid to a bondholder at the maturity date, given the issuer doesn't default. However, bonds sold on the secondary market fluctuate with interest rates. For example, if interest rates are higher than the bond's coupon rate, then the bond is sold at a discount (below par). Conversely, if interest rates are lower than the bond's coupon rate, then the bond is sold at a premium (above par). A financial payment that may constitute a bribe and that is made with the intention of expediting an administrative process. A facilitating payment is a payment made to a public or government official that acts as incentive for the official to complete some action or process expeditiously, to the benefit of the party making the payment.
In general, a facilitating payment is made to smooth the progress of a service to which the payer is legally entitled, without making such a payment. In some countries, these payments are considered normal, whereas in other countries, facilitating payments are prohibited by law and considered bribes. Also called facilitation payments. I: Generally, facilitating payments are demanded by low-level, low-income officials in exchange for providing a service to which the payer is entitled even without the payment. Certain countries do not consider facilitating payments bribes as long as such payment is not made to earn or maintain business, or to create an unfair or improper advantage over another business. Such countries may believe these payments are simply a part of the cost of doing business. In other countries, including the United Kingdom and Germany, facilitating payments made abroad are considered bribes and are prohibited.
An example of a facilitating payment may be illustrated in the following scenario. Assume a business required a particular license or permit in order to operate. The company is entitled to the license or permit because it has met all the requirements. The business is otherwise poised to open its doors for business, but is legally bound to wait until the license or permit has been issued. The company may make a facilitating payment to an official who can help expedite the licensing or permitting process. In many countries, this payment would be acceptable as long as it does not involve a payment made to a foreign entity. In other countries, this would still be considered a bribe (and thus illegal).
The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) prohibits facilitation payments. The legal status of facilitating payments varies by country. The Business Anti-Corruption Portal maintains information regarding different countries' profiles regarding corruption, bribes and facilitating payments.
An investment strategy in which securities are chosen based on attributes that are associated with higher returns. Factor investing requires investors to take into account an increased level of granularity when choosing securities; specifically, more granular than asset class. Common factors reviewed in factor investing include style, size, and risk. I: Portfolio diversification has long been a popular safety tactic, but the gains of diversification can be lost if the securities chosen react the same way to market conditions. For example, an investor may choose a mixture of stocks and bonds that all decline in value when certain market conditions arise. Factor investing is designed to look at specific attributes and determine whether securities will move in the same direction, and adjust portfolio holdings to reduce this risk.
Traditional methods of portfolio diversification, such as 80% stocks and 20% bonds, are relatively easy to implement. This makes factor investing seem overwhelming because there are a large number of factors that an investor can focus on. Rather than focus on complex attributes, such as momentum, investors new to factor investing can focus on simpler attributes, such style (growth vs. value), size (large cap vs. small cap), and risk (beta). These attributes are readily available for most securities, and are listed on popular stock research websites.
Income received from the factors of production - land, labor, and capital. Factor income on the use of land is called rent, income generated from labor is called wages and income generated from capital is called profit. The factor income of all normal residents of a country is referred to as the national income, and factor income plus current transfers is referred to as private income. I: Factor income is most commonly used in macroeconomic analysis, and helps governments determine the difference between Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Product. For most countries the difference between GDP and GNP is small, since income generated by citizens abroad and by foreigners domestically often offset each other. A large difference in factor income is more likely to be found in small, developing nations, where a significant portion of income may be generated by foreign direct investment.
The proportional distribution of factor income across the factors of production is also important in country-level analysis. Countries with low populations but great mineral wealth may see a low proportion of factor income stemming from labor, but a high proportion stemming from capital. Nations focusing on agriculture may see an uptick in factor income derived from land, though crop failures or declining prices may lead to decreases. Industrialization and increased productivity generally cause rapid shifts in factor income distribution.
In common trading terms, if a seller does not deliver securities or a buyer does not pay owed funds by the settlement date, then the transaction is said to fail. In a stock exchange, this occurs if a stockbroker does not deliver or receive securities, within a specified time after a security sale or a security purchase. When a seller cannot deliver the contracted securities, this is called a short fail. If a buyer is unable to pay for the securities, this is called a long fail. I: Presently, firms have three days after the date of a trade to settle stock transactions. Within this time frame, securities and cash must be delivered to the clearing house for settlement. If firms are unable to meet this deadline, a fail will occur. Settlement requirements for stock, options, futures contracts, forwards and fixed-income securities differ.
Fail is also used as a bank term when a bank is unable to pay its debt to other banks. The inability of one bank to pay its debt to other banks in interbank fund transfer systems, can potentially lead to a domino effect, causing several banks to become insolvent.
A factor model that expands on the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) by adding size and value factors in addition to the market risk factor in CAPM. This model considers the fact that value and small cap stocks outperform markets on a regular basis. By including these two additional factors, the model adjusts for the outperformance tendency, which is thought to make it a better tool for evaluating manager performance. I: Fama and French attempted to better measure market returns and, through research, found that value stocks outperform growth stocks; similarly, small cap stocks tend to outperform large cap stocks. As an evaluation tool, the performance of portfolios with a large number of small cap or value stocks would be lower than the CAPM result, as the three factor model adjusts downward for small cap and value outperformance.There is a lot of debate about whether the outperformance tendency is due to market efficiency or market inefficiency. On the efficiency side of the debate, the outperformance is generally explained by the excess risk that value and small cap stocks face as a result of their higher cost of capital and greater business risk. On the inefficiency side, the outperformance is explained by market participants mispricing the value of these companies, which provides the excess return in the long run as the value adjusts. Farm income refers to profits and losses incurred through the operation of a farm. A farm income statement (sometimes called a farm profit and loss statement) is a summary of income and expenses that occurred during a specified accounting period. This period is usually the calendar year for farmers (January 1 - December 31). I: In U.S. agricultural policy, farm income can be divided as follows:Gross Cash Income: the sum of all receipts from the sale of crops, livestock and farm related goods and services, as well as any direct payments from the government.Gross Farm Income: the same as gross cash income with the addition of non-money income, such as the value of home consumption of self-produced food.Net Cash Income: the gross cash income less all cash expenses, such as for feed, seed, fertilizer, property taxes, interest on debt, wagers, contract labor and rent to non-operator landlords.Net Farm Income: the gross farm income less cash expenses and non-cash expenses, such as capital consumption and farm household expenses.Net Cash Income: a short-term measure of cash flow. An account that meets the requirements to be covered or insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). An FDIC Insured Account has to be in a bank that is a participant of the FDIC program. The different accounts that can be FDIC insured are NOW, checking, savings, Certificate of Deposits (CD) and money market deposit accounts. Accounts that do not qualify as FDIC insured accounts are safe deposit boxes, investment accounts (stocks, bonds, etc.) mutual funds, life insurance policies, etc. I: If a depositor wants an FDIC insured account, it is important to make sure that the desired bank is a participant of the FDIC program. Banks that are participants of the FDIC, are required to display an official sign at each teller window or station where deposits are regularly received. The maximum dollar amount that is insured in a qualified account is $250,000 per bank. In other words, it is possible for a depositor to deposit $1 million in four different banks and each account will be fully insured. An analysis of the ability to complete a project successfully, taking into account legal, economic, technological, scheduling and other factors. Rather than just diving into a project and hoping for the best, a feasibility study allows project managers to investigate the possible negative and positive outcomes of a project before investing too much time and money. I: For example, if a private school wanted to expand its campus to alleviate overcrowding, it could conduct a feasibility study to determine whether to follow through. This study might look at where additions would be built, how much the expansion would cost, how the expansion would disrupt the school year, how students' parents feel about the proposed expansion, how students feel about the proposed expansion, what local laws might affect the expansion, and so on. The total amount of money that the United States federal government owes to creditors. The government's creditors include all individuals, businesses, governments and other organizations that own U.S. government debt securities. The federal debt exists as a result of federal government shortfalls, or deficit budgets in which the government's expenses exceed its revenues. The federal debt does not include any debts in the name of individuals, corporations and state or municipal governments. I: In recent years, the federal debt has grown to exorbitant amounts - as of April 2006, the total federal debt was estimated to be $8.4 trillion. Viewed as an absolute number, the federal debt seems quite enormous, representing more than 20% of total worldwide debt.However, some economists point out that the federal debt is only about two-thirds the size of the U.S. GDP - a statistic that puts the U.S. well below the debt-to-GDP levels of other industrialized countries, such as Japan. Heated debate continues as to whether the federal debt is too large and should be paid down, or whether it is simply a necessary catalyst for continued economic growth. The interest rate at which a depository institution lends funds maintained at the Federal Reserve to another depository institution overnight. The federal funds rate is generally only applicable to the most creditworthy institutions when they borrow and lend overnight funds to each other. The federal funds rate is one of the most influential interest rates in the U.S. economy, since it affects monetary and financial conditions, which in turn have a bearing on key aspects of the broad economy including employment, growth and inflation. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which is the Federal Reserve's primary monetary policymaking body, telegraphs its desired target for the federal funds rate through open market operations. Also known as the "fed funds rate". I: The higher the federal funds rate, the more expensive it is to borrow money. Since it is only applicable to very creditworthy institutions for extremely short-term (overnight) loans, the federal funds rate can be viewed as the base rate that determines the level of all other interest rates in the U.S. economy.
Banks and other depository institutions maintain accounts at the Federal Reserve to make payments for themselves or on behalf of their customers. The end-of-the-day balances in these accounts are used to meet the reserve requirements mandated by the Federal Reserve. If a depository institution expects to have a larger end-of-day balance than it needs, it will lend the excess amount to an institution that expects to have a shortfall in its own balance. The federal funds rate thus represents the interest rate charged by the lending institution.
The target for the federal funds rate - which as noted earlier is set by the FOMC - has varied widely over the years in response to prevailing economic conditions. While it was as high as 20% in the inflationary early 1980s, the rate has declined steadily since then. The FOMC has maintained the target range for the federal funds rate at a record low of 0% to 0.25%, from December 2008 onward, to combat the Great Recession of 2008-09 and stimulate the U.S. economy.
A U.S. law requiring a deduction from paychecks and income that goes toward the Social Security program and Medicare. Both employees and employers are responsible for sharing the FICA payments. I: FICA stipulates that there is a maximum that can be allocated to Social Security, while there is no maximum on what can go toward Medicare. Once the maximum to Social Security is achieved, the contributor's FICA payment will not increase the Social Security portion but will continue to increase the contribution to Medicare. The amount of the FICA payment depends on the income of the contributor; the higher the income, the higher the FICA payment. If FICA states, for example, that 12.4% of your salary goes toward Social Security and 2.9% goes toward Medicare, half of the payment is made by you and the other half by your employer. This means you pay 7.65% (6.2% and 1.45%) of your income, while your employer pays the other 7.65%. Self-employed people, on the other hand, must pay the full amount, but half - which would represent the employer's half - is a deductible business expense. The set minimum amount of gross income that a family needs for food, clothing, transportation, shelter and other necessities. In the United States, this level is determined by the Department of Health and Human Services. FPL varies according to family size. The number is adjusted for inflation and reported annually in the form of poverty guidelines. Public assistance programs, such as Medicaid in the U.S., define eligibility income limits as some percentage of FPL. I: The poverty guidelines are typically issued every February and correspond to the year in which they are issued. For example, the guidelines issued in Feb 2011 are designated as the 2011 poverty guidelines. (In 2011, the gross yearly FPLs were $18,530, $22,350 and $26,170 for families sizes of three, four and five, respectively.) However, when determining an individual's or a family's eligibility for receiving benefits, some government agencies compare before-tax income to the poverty guidelines, while others compare after-tax income. Likewise, eligibility limits may be based on gross income, net income or some other measure of income. The branch of the Federal Reserve Board that determines the direction of monetary policy. The FOMC is composed of the board of governors, which has seven members, and five reserve bank presidents. The president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York serves continuously, while the presidents of the other reserve banks rotate their service of one-year terms. I: The FOMC meets eight times per year to set key interest rates, such as the discount rate, and to decide whether to increase or decrease the money supply, which the Fed does by buying and selling government securities. For example, to tighten the money supply, or decrease the amount of money available in the banking system, the Fed sells government securities. The meetings of the committee, which are secret, are the subject of much speculation on Wall Street, as analysts try to guess whether the Fed will tighten or loosen the money supply, thereby causing interest rates to rise or fall. The meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) that occurs eight times a year. In the FOMC meeting, the FOMC, consisting of 12 members, determines near-term monetary policy. The changes that are decided on, are announced immediately after the FOMC Meeting. I: Because the Fed determines interest rate policy at the FOMC meeting, the announcement following this meeting is very important. Speculation often occurs weeks in advance, about what will happen with interest rates following the meeting. The minutes of this meeting are released three weeks after the gathering. This is a vast improvement over the six to eight week lag that existed prior to December 14, 2004.The expected change in rate (if any), is often priced into the markets prior to the announcement, which can cause drastic market action should the announcement be different from what was expected. Interest rate cuts can stimulate the economy, but at the same time, reduce the value of the currency. A former CEO of Sara Lee from 2000 to 2005. Sara Lee sells frozen and packaged foods, including baked goods, beverages and meat, along with household products such as body care, shoe care, insecticides and detergents. McMillan took over at a time when the company was struggling, and under his executive leadership, he worked to streamline the company's 200-plus brands. Nonetheless, the company's revenue and operating income declined as the company faced competition from low-cost imports and inexpensive store brands. I: Another setback McMillan experienced was the result of his decision to acquire the baked-goods company EarthGrains. The move was unpopular with investors because they were unhappy with the price paid for the company and because anticipated gains from the decision never materialized. He was also the subject of a sexual discrimination lawsuit in 2004.
McMillan was born in 1946 and earned an MBA with honors from Harvard Business School. In addition to Sara Lee, he has been a board member with Aero Toy Store, Inc., Bank of America, Monsanto, Electrolux, Illinova and Pharmacia & Upjohn.
The securities market in Calcutta, India. The country's second-oldest exchange began in 1908 as the Calcutta Stock Exchange Association with the trading of securities in the East India Company. At this time, it had 150 members. In 1923, the Association became a limited liability concern. In 1980, the exchange was permanently recognized by India's government. In 1997, The Exchange was the largest in the country, and it replaced its manual trading system with a computerized trading system called C-Star. I: C-Star was subject to a major payment settlement system scam in 2001 that closed down the exchange and resulted in the suspension of 300 CSE members, many of whom were able to get their licenses back several years later. Many companies delisted from the CSE and joined the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) or National Stock Exchange instead. In 2007, the CSE entered a piggyback arrangement with the BSE. 2,500 companies are listed exclusively on the CSE, but critics say that there are not enough companies in East India and that very few of CSE's exclusive listings are good companies. A collection of assorted theories that assert that certain days, months or times of year are subject to above-average price changes in market indexes and can therefore represent good or bad times to invest. Some theories that fall under the calendar effect include the Monday effect, the October effect, the Halloween effect and the January effect. I: Most of the evidence for these effects is anecdotal, although there is a slight statistical case to be made for some of them, which is more than enough to encourage some investors to place their faith in them.Proponents of the October effect, one of the most popular theories, argue that October is when some of the greatest crashes in stock market history, including 1929's Black Tuesday and Thursday and the 1987 stock market crash, occurred. While statistical evidence doesn't support the phenomenon that stocks trade lower in October, the psychological expectations of the October effect still exist. A local currency used in Calgary, Canada. Calgary dollars are part of an initiative to encourage consumers to shop locally, to personalize economic transactions, to foster a sense of community and to increase local self-sufficiency/bioregionalism. Because it is not intended to replace the Canadian dollar, but rather to function alongside it, the Calgary dollar is considered a complementary currency. It is not possible to earn interest by saving Calgary dollars; they are meant to be spent.
Formerly known as a Bow Chinook Hour. I: A nonprofit group called the Arusha Centre founded the Calgary Dollars program in 1996 and has operated it ever since. Consumers and merchants must sign up to participate. Calgary dollars are plastic bills that come in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 dollars. They can be used to buy all the basics, like food, clothing and transportation as well as arts and leisure items. Calgary dollars are essentially a barter system. The system is legal and businesses pay taxes on the Calgary dollars they earn.
Participating local merchants can choose to accept Calgary dollars for 25% to 100% of the price of their goods and services. A customer might pay for a $20 purchase with $5 in Calgary dollars and $15 in Canadian dollars at a business that accepts 25% Calgary dollars.
The short term interest rate charged by banks on loans extended to broker-dealers. A call loan rate is an interest charged on loans made to broker-dealers who use the funds to make margin loans to their margin account clients. These loans are payable by the broker-dealer on call (i.e. on demand or immediately) upon receiving such request from the lending institution. The call loan rate forms the basis upon which margin loans are priced. The call loan rate can fluctuate daily in response to factors such as market interest rates, funds' supply and demand, and economic conditions. The rate is published in daily publications including the Wall Street Journal and Investor's Business Daily (IBD). Also called broker's call. I: A call loan is a loan given to a broker-dealer that is used to finance client margin accounts. The interest rate on a call loan is calculated daily; this rate is known as the call loan rate, or broker's call. A margin account is a type of brokerage account in which the broker lends the client cash that is used to purchase securities. The loan is collateralized by the securities held in the account, and by cash that the margin account holder is required to have deposited. A margin account enables investors to use leverage; that is, they are able to trade larger positions than they would otherwise be able to. While this has the potential to magnify profits, trading on margin can also result in magnified losses.
Clients must be approved for margin accounts and are required to make a minimum initial deposit, known as the minimum margin, in the account. Once the account is approved and funded, investors can borrow up to 50% of the purchase price of the transaction. If the account value falls below a stated minimum (known as the maintenance margin), the broker will require the account holder to deposit more funds or liquidate position(s) to pay down the loan.
One of the four types of compound options, this is a call option on an underlying put option. If the option owner exercises the call option, he or she receives a put option, which is an option that gives the owner the right but not the obligation to sell a specific asset at a set price within a defined time period. The value of a call on a put changes in inverse proportion to the stock price, i.e. it decreases as the stock price increases, and increases as the stock price decreases. Also known as a split-fee option. I: A call on a put will have therefore two strike prices and two expiration dates, one for the call option and the other for the underlying put option. As well, there are two option premiums involved; the initial premium is paid upfront for the call option; the additional premium is only paid if the call option is exercised and the option owner receives the put option. The premium in this case would generally be higher than if the option owner had only purchased the underlying put option to begin with.
For example, consider a U.S. company that is bidding on a contract for a European project; if the company's bid is successful, it would receive say 10 million euros upon project completion in one year's time. The company is concerned about the exchange risk posed to it by the weaker euro if it wins the project. Buying a put option on 10 million euros expiring in one year would involve significant expense for a risk that is as yet uncertain (since the company is not sure that it would be awarded the bid). Therefore, one hedging strategy the company could use would be to buy, for example, a two-month call on a one-year put on the euro (contract amount of 10 million euros). The premium in this case would be significantly lower than it would be if it had instead purchased the one-year put option on the 10 million euros outright.
On the two-month expiry date of the call option, the company has two alternatives to consider. If it has won the project contract or is in a winning position, and still desires to hedge its currency risk, it can exercise the call option and obtain the put option on 10 million euros. Note that the put option will now have ten months (i.e. 12 - 2 months) left to expiry. On the other hand, if the company does not win the contract, or no longer wishes to hedge currency risk, it can let the call option expire unexercised and walk away.
Canada's national securities depository, clearing and settlement hub. The Canadian Depository for Securities Limited, widely known by its acronym CDS, provides reliable and cost-effective depository, clearing and settlement services to participants in Canada's equity, fixed income and money markets. It was incorporated in June 1970, in response to rising costs for back-office functions and increased trading volumes in the Canadian capital market. CDS holds over $3.5 trillion on deposit, and handles more than 360 million domestic and cross-border securities trades annually. I: CDS's responsibilities include the safe custody and movement of securities, post-trade transactions processing, accurate record-keeping and the collection and distribution of securities entitlements such as dividends and interest payments. CDS is regulated by the securities commissions of Ontario and Quebec, and the Bank of Canada. The Canadian Institute of Actuaries, or CIA, is an organization of the actuarial profession in Canada. The CIA's vision is to for actuaries to be recognized as the leading professionals in the financial modeling and risk management fields. It is the Canadian version of the AmericanAcademy of Actuaries. I: The Canadian Institute of Actuaries was established in March, 1965, by an act of Canada's federal Parliament. The organization requires members to reside in Canada and to belong to an approved actuarial organization. The institute is also responsible for issuing the Fellow of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries (FCIA) designation to actuaries, which is a requirement under Canadian law for practicing actuaries. In Canada, there are regulations that require non insured pension plans to be valued once every three years by an FCIA. In order for an actuary to be designated an FCIA, the actuary is required to pass an exam issued by the Society of Actuaries, another professional actuary organization in Canada, and Practice Education Course (PEC), which is administered by the CIA. Canada's leading provider of professional credentials and compliance programs for the financial services industry. The Canadian Securities Institute was created in 1970 and has served an excess of 700,000 professionals over more than four decades. The non-profit Canadian Securities Institute was transformed into the for-profit CSI Global Solutions in 2003. CSI offers over 170 courses for the securities, wealth management, commercial banking and insurance industries. It is the sole provider of the well-recognized Canadian Securities Course, the basic requirement for qualification as a licensed securities dealer in Canada. I: Through its global partners, CSI also provides financial proficiency training in a number of regions across the world including China, Europe, the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.
In November 2010, CSI was acquired by Moody's Corporation for C$155 million and commenced operating as a separate company within Moody's Analytics.
Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC), Canada's stock exchanges and Canada's securities regulatory commissions all endorse the CSI.
An order from an investor to a broker, to cancel a previously placed order that has not yet been filled. Cancel former order (CFO) is used by an investor who has changed his or her mind about a securities transaction that has not yet been executed or filled, and wishes to change one or more of the order parameters, such as price or amount. By canceling the previous order, a CFO ensures that no order duplication takes place if the client generates a new order for the same security. I: It goes without saying that a CFO can only be used to replace unfilled orders; orders where a fill has been received are binding contracts and cannot be revoked.
A CFO is often used in cases where market conditions prompt the investor to change the order parameters. For example, in a plunging market the investor may use a CFO to lower the price at which he or she wants to purchase a security.
Conversely, if a stock is rising rapidly, the investor may change a limit order to a market order to ensure that an order fill is obtained. As an example, assume an investor wants to buy 100 shares of Widget Co, which is trading at $10.25, and places a limit order at $10.00. If Widget Co begins rising on news of a positive development and is now trading at $10.50, the investor may CFO his or her previous order and place a new market order, so as to buy 100 shares of Widget Co at the current market price.
When a creditor forgives a debt without requiring consideration in return. The amount of debt that is forgiven by cancellation of debt is considered income to the debtor and must be reported as a result. In most cases, it is taxable as ordinary income and is known as cancellation-of-debt (COD) income. In some cases, this debt is from one country to another and is partially or fully wiped away to help rebuild the nation. I: If the cancellation of debt is taxable, the debtor will receive a 1099-C at year-end that reports the amount of debt forgiven as taxable income. For example, if a bank lent $10,000 to you and you pay back $6,000, then are unable to pay the remainder, the bank can forgive the $4,000 difference, which will be recorded as income for you. Cases in which debt forgiveness is not considered income include bankruptcies, insolvencies, certain farm loans and non-recourse loans. A component of a country's balance of payments that covers claims on or liabilities to non-residents, specifically in regard to financial assets. Financial account components include direct investment, portfolio investment and reserve assets, and are broken down by sector. When recorded in a country's balance of payments, claims made by non-residents on the financial assets of residents are considered liabilities, while claims made against non-residents by residents are considered assets. The financial account differs from the capital account in that the capital account deals with transfers of capital assets. Additionally, the financial account can include claims on land. I: The financial account involves financial assets, such as gold, currency, derivatives, special drawing rights, equity and bonds. During a complex transaction that contains both capital assets and financial claims, a country may record part of a transaction in its capital account and the other part in its current account. Additionally, because entries in the financial account are net entries that offset credits with debits, they may not appear in a country's balance of payments, even if transactions are occurring between residents and non-residents.
Easing access to a country's capital is considered part of a broader movement toward economic liberalization, with a more liberalized financial account providing the benefit of opening a country up to capital markets. Reducing restrictions to the financial account does have its risks. The more a country's economy is integrated with other economies around the world, the higher the likelihood that economic troubles abroad may find their way back home. This potential outcome is weighed against the potential benefits: lower funding costs, access to global capital markets and increased efficiency.
The 1040EZ is an alternative to the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) 1040 income tax form and offers a faster and easier way to file taxes, meant for taxpayers with rudimentary tax situations. In order to be eligible to use this form, the individual must have a taxable income of less than $100,000, interest income of $1,500 or less, possess no dependents and fulfill other requirements set by the IRS.
Also known as "income tax return for single and joint filers with no dependents" and unofficially as the "easy form". I: For most individuals, the 1040EZ is the first tax form they will fill out. For example, a young adult with a part-time job will file a tax return at the end of the year. This person will have a straightforward and simple tax situation if she or he has no real estate assets, no tax shelters and no foreign income; only the most basic information is needed to determine whether any money is owed or refunded.
As an individual's taxation situation becomes more complicated by having a child and claiming a dependent, he or she may need to file under the Form 1040A or Form 1040.
1. The idea that a local government's long-term debt should not exceed 25% of its annual budget. Any debt beyond this threshold is considered excessive and a potential risk, since the municipality may have trouble paying the cost of debt.
2. A technique for determining royalties which stipulates that a party selling a product based on another party's intellectual property must pay that party a royalty of 25% of the gross profit made from the sale, before taxes. The 25% rule applies to trademarks, copyrights, patents and other forms of intellectual property. I: 1. Municipal governments looking to fund projects through bond issues have to make assumptions about the revenue they expect to bring in, which in turn will allow them to support bond payments. If revenue falls short of expectations those municipalities may not be able to make bond payments, which can hurt their credit rating. Municipal bond holders want to make sure that the issuing authority has the capacity to pay without getting in too deep.
2. Setting the value of intellectual property is a complex matter. The 25% rule does not closely define what "gross profit" includes, which creates ambiguity in the valuation calculation. Because it's a hard-and-fast rule, it does not take into account the costs associated with marketing the product. For example, the holder of a copyright will receive a 25% royalty, though the party doing the selling usually incurs the cost of creating demand in the market through advertising.
A money-purchase retirement savings plan that is set up by an employer. The 401(a) plan allows for contributions by the employee, the employer, or both. Contribution amounts, whether dollar-based or percentage-based, eligibility, and vesting schedule are all determined by the sponsoring employer.Funds are withdrawn from a 401(a) plan through lump-sum payment, rollovers to another qualified plan, or through an annuity. I: Employers are able to create multiple 401(a) plans, each with different eligibility criteria, vesting schedules and contribution amounts. For this reason, the 401(a) plan is commonly used by employers to create inventive programs to help retain employees. An adjustable-rate mortgage with an initial five year fixed interest rate after which the interest rate begins to adjust every six months according to an index plus a margin (or, the fully indexed interest rate). The index is variable while the margin is fixed for the life of the loan. 5-6 ARMs are usually tied to the six-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) index. . I: When shopping for an ARM, the index, the margin and the interest rate cap structure should not be overlooked. In a rising interest rate environment, the longer the time period between interest rate reset dates, the more beneficial it will be for the borrower. So, in this case, a 5-1 ARM would be better than a 5-6 ARM. The opposite would be true in a falling interest rate environment.Additionally, different indexes behave differently in different interest rate environments. Those with a built-in lag effect, such as the Moving Treasury Average (MTA) Index are more beneficial in a rising interest rate environment than short-term interest rate indexes such as the one-month LIBOR. The interest rate cap structure determines how quickly and to what extent the interest rate can adjust over the life of the mortgage. Different cap structures might be available for certain types of ARMs. Finally, the margin is fixed for the life of the loan, but it can frequently be negotiated with the lender before signing mortgage documents. A special status given to a firm that is owned and operated by persons deemed to be socially or economically disadvantaged. A business considered an 8(a) Firm is eligible to receive financial assistance, training, mentoring and other forms of assistance. The status is part of a business development program administered by the Small Business Administration (SBA), a United States agency charged with supporting the growth and development of small businesses. It is specifically outlined in Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act, and is designed to help small, disadvantaged businesses compete in the general market. I: In order to increase business involvement by a broader portion of society, governments provide incentives for certain segments of the population to own a business. The SBA identifies several groups that are eligible for 8(a) status including: Black Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian Pacific Americans, and Subcontinent Asian Americans. Businesses that receive contracts due to their 8(a) status are subject to annual reviews. An investing strategy that involves deploying 90% of one's investment capital in interest-bearing instruments that have a lower degree of risk, and the balance 10% in high-risk investments. This is a relatively conservative investment strategy that aims to generate higher yields on the overall portfolio. Potential losses will typically be limited to the 10% that is invested in the high-risk investments, depending on the quality of bonds purchased. I: A common application of the 90/10 strategy involves the use of short-term Treasury Bills for the fixed-income component (90% of the portfolio), with the balance 10% used for higher risk securities such as equity or index options or warrants.
For example, assume an investor with a $100,000 portfolio uses the 90/10 strategy. He or she invests $90,000 in one-year Treasury Bills that yield 4% per annum, with the balance $10,000 deployed in equity in the S&P 500. If the S&P 500 returns 10% at the end of one year, the overall return on the portfolio would be 4.6% (0.90 x 4% + 0.10 x 10%). However, if the S&P 500 declines by 10%, the overall return on the portfolio after one year would be 2.6% (0.90 x 4% + 0.10 x -10%).
The informal name of a United States law that gives military veterans a variety of benefits, including business loans, mortgages, education-expense assistance and unemployment payments. The G.I. Bill, formally called the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, provided these benefits to men and women following WWII. I: The G.I. Bill is considered one of the most significant pieces of 20th century legislation passed by the U.S. Congress. Much of the impetus behind the Bill's passage stemmed from the country's experience with veterans following WWI, when returning veterans were not effectively assimilated back into the workforce. The lack of support and the advent of the Great Depression led to public protests, including the Bonus Army marchers in 1932.
The Bill did much to increase the number of college-educated Americans following the war, as many veterans who would have rejoined the workforce instead opted for degrees. In 1947, considered the peak of the Bill's use, roughly 49% of college admissions were of veterans. The original G.I. Bill ended in 1956, at which point more than half of veterans had opted to receive technical training or attend college. The Bill also supplied more than 2 million home loans to veterans by 1952.
The G.I. Bill has been updated several times since 1944, including 1985 (the Montgomery G.I. Bill) and 2008 (the Post-9/11 G.I. Bill).
An increase in the value of an asset or property. A gain arises if the selling or disposition price of the asset is higher than the original purchase or acquisition price. This positive difference between the sale price and purchase price is referred to as the gross gain; if transaction costs such as commissions and other expenses are considered, this would be a net gain. A gain may either be realized, i.e., when the asset is actually sold, or unrealized, i.e., a paper gain. Another important distinction of a gain is that it may be taxable or non-taxable. I: In most jurisdictions, realized gains are subject to capital gains tax. However, if the gains accrue in a non-taxable account - such as an Individual Retirement Account in the U.S. or a Registered Retirement Savings Plan in Canada - gains will not be taxed.
For taxation purposes, net realized gains - rather than gross gains - are taken into consideration. In a stock transaction in a taxable account,the taxable gain would be the difference between the (higher) sale price and purchase price, after taking brokerage commissions into consideration.
A model of optimality taking into consideration not only benefits less costs, but also the interaction between participants. Game theory attempts to look at the relationships between participants in a particular model and predict their optimal decisions. I: One frequently cited example of game theory is the prisoner's dilemma. Suppose there are two brokers accused of fraudulent trading activities: Dave and Henry. Both Dave and Henry are being interrogated separately and do not know what the other is saying. Both brokers want to minimize the amount of time spent in jail and here lies the dilemma. The sentences vary as follows: 1) If Dave pleads not guilty and Henry confesses, Henry will receive the minimum sentence of one year, and Dave will have to stay in jail for the maximum sentence of five years. 2) If nobody makes any implications they will both receive a sentence of two years. 3) If both decide to plead guilty and implicate their partner, they will both receive a sentence of three years. 4) If Henry pleads not guilty and Dave confesses, Dave will receive the minimum sentence of one year, and Henry will have to stay in jail for the maximum five years. Obviously, pleading guilty is the most attractive should the other plead not guilty since the sentence is only one year. However, if the other party also chooses to plead guilty, both will have to serve three years. On the other hand, if both parties plead not guilty, they'd have to serve two years in jail. Consequently, the risk of pleading not guilty is a five-year sentence, should the other choose to confess. A form of technical analysis based on the ideas that the market is geometric and cyclical in nature. A Gann fan consists of a series of diagonal lines called Gann angles, of which there are nine. These angles are superimposed over a price chart to show a security's support and resistance levels. The resulting image is supposed to help technical analysts predict price changes. Although once drawn by hand, today Gann fans can be drawn with software programs. I: Gann Fans were developed by W. D. Gann, who was also known for his accurate financial predictions, called the Gann studies, in the early 1900s. Gann's ideal angle was a 45 degree angle based on his ideal balance of time and price. However, because the construction of a Gann fan relies heavily on subjective choices made by individual traders, the chart may be limited in its usefulness and accuracy. The three premises Gann based his theory on were: i) price, time and range are the only factors, ii) cyclical markets, and iii) geometric market design. Insurance will only cover a certain amount of coverage if leased items are stolen or totaled. There is often a difference between the amount the insurance company covers and the amount of the vehicle that is owed under the lease agreement, because of the way lease agreements are structured.
Gap amount is the portion of a leased item's value that is not covered by insurance, in the event of a total loss from an accident or theft. Its calculation is based on the terms of the lease's early termination payoff provision. To protect against losing money because of the gap amount, consumers can purchase gap insurance. I: The lease payments at the beginning of the lease term do not fully cover the vehicle's depreciation, because vehicles depreciate in value more quickly when they are newer and because a consumer's vehicle lease payments are flat amounts paid monthly over a period of several years.
For example, a consumer might lease a $25,000 car for three years. It might depreciate by $5,000 in the first year, but the lessee might only pay a total of $3,600 in lease payments during that time. If the car is totaled at the end of the first year, the consumer will need to make up for the difference between what they paid and the value the car has lost. The gap amount would be $1,400, in this case.
A type of auto insurance that car owners can buy to protect themselves against losses that can arise when the amount of compensation received from a total loss does not fully cover the amount the insured owes on the vehicle's financing or lease agreement. This situation arises when the balance owed on a car loan is greater than the book value of the vehicle. I: For example, according to the blue book, John's car is worth $15,000. However, he still owes a total of $20,000 worth of car payments. In the event that John's car is completely written off as a result of an accident or theft, John's car insurance policy will reimburse him with $15,000. Because John owes the car financing company $20,000, however, he will still be $5,000 short, even though he no longer has a car. If John had purchased gap insurance, the gap insurance policy would cover the $5,000 "gap", or the difference between the money received from reimbursement and the amount still owed on the car.