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31 terms

Element 7

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Ezetimibe
Cholesterol absorber inhibitor
Bile
Excess cholesterol stored
HMG-CoA Reductase
Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
Inhibited by cholesterol
Inhibited glucagon
Activated by insulin
Xanthoma
Excess cholesterol stored in tendons
Fibrates
Increased HDL production
Enhance hepatic lipid metabolism
Familial Hypertriacylglycerolaemia
LPL deficiency
Increased TAG
Apo C2 deficiency
Familial Hypercholesterolaemia
LDL receptor deficiency
Xanthomas
Increased risk of CHD
GDA Omega 3 and 6
0.4g
2.0g
Aminotransferase
Alanine---> Pyruvate
glutamate dehydrogenase
a-ketoglutarate---> glutamate
Aspartate aminotransferase
oxaloacetate--> aspartate
3 phosphoglycerate--> ______---> cysteine+_______
serine
glycine
pyruvate--> _________
alanine
oxaloacetate--> _______---> asparagine
aspartate
a-ketoglutarate---> glutamate---> _______
glutamine
Muscle protein-> amino acid-> Glutamate-> Alanine
Alanine cycle
Alkaptonuria
Lack of homogentisic acid oxidase
Excrete homogentisic acid
Black urine
Phenylalanine--> tyrosine--> hydroxyphenylpyruvate--> homogentisic acid--> Fumarate
Phenylketonuria
PKU
1 in 10,000
Increase in phenylalanine
Mental retardation
RDA protein male and female
55g/day
44g/day
Reference proteins
Exact amount of protein needed for synthesis
Marasmus
Age: <18 months
Oedema: absent, severe wasting of body fat
Cause: sever malnutrition
Wrinkled skin, hair loss, thin
Kwashiorkor
Age: 1-5 years
Oedema: Present due to low plasma albumin
Odema hides wasting body
Cause: malnutrition
Features: Scaly skin, distended abdomen, hepatomegaly, sparse depigmented hair.
Vitamins
Cannot be synthesised in the body
Complex organic substance
Folate---> THF---> synthesis of purines, thymidine, glycine
Folic Acid (B9)
Ferritin
Main iron storage protein
Fe2+ and Haem
Transferrin
Transports iron between tissues.
Endocytosis
Receptor complex
Acidification of endosome released Fe3+ stored within ferritin
In iron deficiency ferritin translation ______ while transferrin receptor number ________
Decrease
Increase
Poly unsaturated fatty acid
Susceptible to free radical chain reactions
Superoxide Dismutase
Oxygen free radicals --> Oxygen and hydrogen peroxide
Glutathione Peroxidase
Selenium containing enzyme
Keeps SH part of amino acids reduced
Glutathione reductase
NADPH--> NADP