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UPD-04_History of Urban Planning
Terms in this set (34)
the collective management of urban development
by and for the community, coordination of many actors for public or common interest
Anticipatory, putting knowledge into action and comprehensive
The restructuring of Rome by Pope Pius VI, has a strong concern over aesthetics governed by strong axes, symmetry, order, coherence and harmony. Large scale projects, monumental and large boulevards punctuated by obelisks at the end of long vistas. Edification of pope's power. E.g.: Guelph, Savannah, Washington DC.
Colonial and Frontier Settlements
Concern over efficiency with egalitarian ethics (all plots the same). Designed and planned to sell quickly. Representative of immaturity of local governments.
City Beautiful Movement
Daniel Burnham from Columbian World Fair of 1893 in Chicago. Strong concern over aesthetics (use of classical revival style) to counter the ugly state of industrial N.A. cities. Parks and playgrounds, and civic centres as very important. Use of a comprehensive plan. Values fixing the city rather than escaping the city. E.g. Town of Mont-Royal, Boulevard de la Confederation (Quebec, 1908 not built)
What are some problematic consequences of the City Beautiful Movement?
(1) Superficial address of deeper social issues
(2) Overemphasis on design and aesthetics
(3) Highly destructive
(4) Took enormous technical competence that didn't exist at the time
(5) Headed by civic society which had only an elit composition --> patronizing.
Parks and Playground Movement
Frederick Law Olmstead. Late 1800s. Concern over living conditions and Environment. Parks and playgrounds as important to add clean air and health, but also has a civilizing effect. E.g. Prospect Park, Brooklyn, Buffalo NY Park System, Mont-Royal.
La Ville Radieuse
Le Corbusier in early 1900s. Concern over aesthetics and efficiency. Strong separation of land uses (work vs home) separation of traffic flows (rejection of corridor streets), Tower and park idea. Capitalizing technological progress (cars and reinforced concrete). Aesthetics--> no ornament, functionalist, humans as tech savvy. Values fixing the city rather than escaping. Precursor to Urban Renewal E.g. 1925 Plan Voisin, Marseilles, Antwerp.
1950s. Concern over living conditions, and aesthetics. Followed aesthetics of Ville Radieuse. Slum clearance solution (NOT gentrification). Fast expansion of 1890s infrastructure was growing old, and there needed more room for cars, many people coming back from war. Exercise in demolition (fixing city). E.g. Habitation Jeanne Mance, Pruitt Igoe St Louis.
What are the pros of Urban Renewal?
Green space, better housing accomodations, protected from the street, government intervention for area that market forces wouldn't touch.
What are the cons of Urban Renewals?
No public consultation, razing of heritage buildings en mass, lacks human scale, forced displacement of thousands of families, exclusionary zoning (enclaving low-income) creating stigma, creation of waste space (Jane Jacobs) due to lack of sense of ownership, social patterns destroyed due to quick change, all buildings will age at the same time creating colossal infrastructure renewal requirements.
Area characterized by poverty and inadequate housing accommodations.
Rise of Citizen Activism
Reaction after Urban Renewal, heralded by Jane Jacobs who stated that big projects would not be able to create the complexity that makes city. In correlation with the Vietnam War. Stopped the Spadina Expressway.
How has the process of rebuilding the inner city changed since Urban Renewal?
Urban Renewal --> Neighborhood Development --> Public/Private Partnership --> Private Megaprojects. From Slum Clearance projects to new areas, to harbourfront to Brownfield projects. There is less and less public control, with private developers using leverage to negotiate what can be done. When only public, changes were quick and able to address specific problems.
What were the quantitative urban changes produced by the Industrial City?
- rapid growth of city population
- rapid growth of economic activity
What were the qualitative urban changes produced by the Industrial City?
(1) congested streets
(2) SLUMS terrible housing conditions for the poor - high density, overcrowding
(3) rear courts & tenement housing
(4) bad light and ventilation
(5) air/water pollution
(6) extreme social inequality
(7) rise in alcoholism, vice, unemployment
Herbert Brown Ames
1863-1954. Created maps of Montreal that indicated social conditions. Posited that problems of slum city could be solved through private development and philanthropy. Uses an economic argument: better housing will make better employees. Uses social argument: deplorable conditions of the poor taint entire city. Similary to Lawrence Veiller ideals.
What are some "Fix the City" responses from planning?
(1) Improve housing quality (Housing Reform)
(2) Control city expansion (subdivision controls, neighborhood units)
(3) Widen streets and add thoroughfares (City Beautiful, Urban Renewal)
(4) Create Open/green spaces (Parks and Playground Movement)
(5) Beautify the city (City Beautiful)
What are some "Leave the City" responses from planning?
(1) Garden City
(2) New towns
(3) Garden Suburb
What changes were required in response to either fixing the city OR leaving the city for urban planning?
(1) a way to lay and maintain infrastructure
(2) ways to regulate land use
(3) effective government
What was the root of the housing problem ?
(1) market failure
(2) abusive/greedy landlords
(3) capitalist exploitation of the working class
A movement, heralded by Engels, Ames and Veiller to improve the quality of housing in urban centres in the early 1900s.
What were the possible solutions advocated by the Housing Reform Movement?
(1) improved design (improved marketability)
(2) stricter building codes and land use regulations to prohibit landlord abuse.
(3) New approach to private dev. (e.g. philanthropy + 5%)
(4) incentives for including affordable houing
(5) housing coops
(6) public housing - g'vt built and run.
(7) overturn private ownership and capitalist system
a sub-standard multi-family dwelling in the urban core.
Believed in a marxist, socialist approach to solve the housing problem, was against capitalism. All property ownership should belong to people.
The Neighborhood Unit
Clarence Perry, 1872-1944.
(1) Elementary School are building unit of the neighborhood.
(2) Commercial Arteries set boundary, and face out of neighborhood.
(3) Curvlinear streets slow traffice
(5) size limite to about 5000 ppl
(6) walkability (5 mins) to neighborhood amenities.
(7) proposed for different layouts and densities.
Even if metropolis continues to grow, sense of community is created through modular neighborhood units.
Ebenezer Howard, 1850-1928.
(1) Combines the best of town and country (social and economic dynamism of city, with quiet and comfort of countryside)
(2) Communal ownership of the land (but building owned by owner)
(3) Self-contained community
(4) Allows city to keep Betterment
(5) Comprehensive planning of community
(6) 30 000 ppl per community
(7) string of new, self-contained towns contained by rail--> Stop expanding urban core.
e.g. Cite Jardin, Letchworth, Welwyn
How were some ideas from the Garden City and Neighborhood Unit "corrupted" when realized?
(1) Betterment not respected
(2) aesthetics looks similar to garden city, but not self-contained. People commute to work thus creating bedroom communities.
(3) Housing type (SFH) mostly the same instead of varied.
(4) private ownership, not communal
(5) greenbelt didn't work.
(6) Financially unsuccessful
New Towns & Garden Suburbs
Takes ideas from Ebenezer Howard's Garden City, but are not self-contained and have bigger land subdivisions. E.g. Radburn, Riverside
What are the 4 enduring concerns in city planning?
(4) Living Conditions
What are the two dimensions of analysis of urban planning movements
(1) FORM: Physical/Spatial (land use, built env. natural env.)
(2) PEOPLE: Socio-Economic/Cultural/Political (survival, opportunity, identity, culture, sustainability, progress...)
What key questions should I be asking myself regarding City development analysis?
(1) What are the socio-economic factors driving change?
(2) Which projects prove influential and why?
(3) How are current design and planning traditions evolving.
(4) what rules, controls are necessary to realize planning ideals?
In what 3 ways has the planning profession and practice evolved?
(1) increase in complexity of problems, with reliance on science and tech
(2) continuously changing aspirations and values
(3) maturing of governance processes towards institutionalization and participatory ideals
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