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19 terms

Chapter 3 Cells

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cell
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Basic unit of life
cell membrane
a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment
organelle
one of the small bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function
nucleus
in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
prokaryote
a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
eukaryote
an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
ribosome
a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
mitochondria
in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration
golgi complex
cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
vesicle
a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
lysosome
a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
tissue
a group of similar cells that perform a common function
organ
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform body functions
organism
a living thing; anything that can carry out life processes independently
structure
the arrangement of parts in an organism
function
the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part