Pharm Hema/Cardio 104

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what are the 5 blood forming organs?
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Terms in this set (166)
what are the 2 main categories of WBCs?granulocytes and agranulocyteswhat 3 Types of WBCs belong under the category of Granulocytes?eosinphils basophils neutrophilswhat 2 types of WBC belong under the category of Agranulocytes?Monocytes Lymphocyteswhat is another name for platelets?thrombocyteswhat component of blood makes 2-3% of total blood volume and assist in the formation of clots?Plateletswhat is a conduit/pathway in which blood travels?Blood vesselswhat is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart?Arterieswhat is a blood vessel that are smaller arteries? Function: help maintain WNL BPArterioleswhat blood vessel is where cellular respiration occurs? Connect between arterioles/venulesCapillarieswhat is the blood vessel that is smaller veins?Venuleswhat blood vessel carries blood to the heart?veinswhat blood forming organ is a flexible fatty tissue?Bone Marrowwhat are the 2 kinds of bone marrow?Red Yellowwhat type of bone marrow produces blood cells?red bone marrowwhere are the 2 place in the body that Red bone marrow can be found?in Flat bones in Calcellous (spongy) material at end of long boneswhat type of bone marrow is composed of fat cells?Yellow bone marrowWhere can yellow bone marrow be found?hollow interior of middle portion of long boneswhat are the 4 functions of bone marrow?Blood cell differation/maturation primary site B-Lymphoctyes differentiate/activate removes old/damaged blood cells recycles iron developing new RBCswhat blood forming organ is the largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the body, produces/stores WBCs/RBCs, removes foreign MAT and damaged RBCs from blood stream?Spleenwhat blood forming organ synthesizes plasma protiens, stores Vitamin K, removes old/damaged RBCs, Hormones, and toxins?Liverwhat blood forming organ is bean-shaped and produce lymphocytes?lymph nodeswhat contains WBCs that help remove old/damaged RBCs?Lymph nodeswhat are 2 blood forming organs that contain Macrophages?Liver Bone Marrowwhat is a type of cell that removes old/damaged RBCs?Macrophageswhat is the dynamic/continual process of blood production?Hematopiesiswhat 3 components of blood is produced by Hematopiesis?WBC RBC plateletswhat type of blast cell gives rise to RBC?Erythroidwhat type of blast cells gives rise to platelets?Megakaryocyticwhat blast cell gives rise to all WBCs?Myeloid/granulocyticwhat gives rise to the T-WBC and B-WBC?Lymphoid stem cellswhere do RBCs go to develop and mature?Bone marrowWhat component of blood is vital to body's immune defense?WBCwhat type of WBC is highly mobile, first to arrive, and attack/digest bacteria? (marked by antibodies)Nuetrophilswhat type of WBC attack pathogens that are coated w/ antibodies?Eosinophilswhat type of WBC migrate to injury, accumulate in damaged tissue, and discharges granules?Basophilswhat releases chemicals that enhance local inflammation and attract eosinophils and basophils to the area?Granuleswhat type of WBC is an aggressive phagocytic cell that engulfs pathogens larger than themselves?Monocyteswhat type of WBC fight microorganisms by the formation of antibodies?lymphocteswhat are the 2 types of lymphocytes?T lymphocytes and B lymphocytesWhat type of lymphocyte matures in the thymus, involved in cell-mediated immunity, and is responsible for the defense against Cancer cells, viruses, intracellular pathogens, and rejection of transplanted tissue?T Lymphocyteswhat type of lymphocyte matures in the spleen or thymus. protect against circulating pathogens/bacteria, and extracellular pathogens by multiplying rapidly?B-Lymphocyteswhat component of blood carries electrolytes, O2, nutrients (glucose, proteins, enzymes), also is where waste products are dissolved?Plasmawhat occurs in response to tissue damage?Clottingwhat is known as the slowing of the movement of blood?Stasiswhat step in coagulation is when platelets are activated and start sticking to eachother and the exposed collagen of the cell wall?1stwhat step in coagulation where coagulation cascade is initiated and fibrogen is converted into filaments of fibrin?2ndwhat step in the coagulation process where fibrin fialments form a meshwork trapping WBC/RBC/platlets, blood vessel is plugged, and fibrin contracts to form solid clot?3rdwhat step in coagulation is where the clot begins to dissolve, fibrolysin breaks down fibrin meshwork, soluble elements are scavenged and removed?4thwhat lab test is conducted to get a complete blood count?CBCwhat test measures time it takes in seconds for a clot to form?INR testwhat is the standard INR?1.0what is a condition in which the O2 carrying capacity of the blood is reduced?anemiawhat is a blood test that indicates percentage of whole blood occupied by formed elements?Hematocritwhat are the 4 types of anemia?Iron Deficiency Folate Deficiency Pernicious Sickle cellwhat type of anemia is caused by too little iron?Iron Deficiency AnemiaWhat type of anemia caused by too little folic acid?Folate Deficiency Anemiawhat type of anemia leads to ineffective hematopoiesis causing cells to die w/in the bone marrow?Folate Deficiency Anemiawhat type of anemia is caused by body cannot properly absorb vitamin B12 from GI Tract?Pernicious Anemiawhat is another name for Prenicious anemia?Vitamin B12 deficiency anemiawhat is responsible for maturation of blood cells in the bone marrow?Vitamin B12what type of anemia is disease passed down through families, causing RBC to have a lifespan of 10-20 days and make the RBCs a sickle shape?Sickle Cell Anemiawhat is the disease in which there is an abnormal increase in the number of blood cells?Polycythemiawhat is an abnormally low WBC count?leukopeniawhat is an abnormally high WBC count? (seen in most types of leukemia)Luekocytosiswhat results from a deficiency in the platelet count?Thrombocytopeniawhat is a genetic deficiency in specific clotting factors?Hemophiliawhat are clots formed in the arteries?arterial thrombosiswhat are clots formed in the veins?DVT Pulmonary embolismwhat are the 5 Colony-stimulating factors?EPO M-CSF G-CSF GM-CSF Multi-CSFwhat colony stimulating factor stimulates the production of RBCs?EPOwhat colony stimulating factor stimulates the production of monocytes?M-CSFwhat colony stimulating factor stimulates the production of Granulocytes?G-CSFwhat colony stimulating factor stimulates the production of both Granulocytes/Monocytes?GM-CSFwhat colony stimulating factor accelerates the production of Granulocytes, monocytes, platelets, and RBCs?Multi-CSFwhat system includes the heart, blood, and vascular system?Cardiovascular systemwhat part of the cardiovascular system has 4 chambers and is a muscular hollow organ?Heartwhat are the 3 functional parts of the heart?cardiac muscle, conduction system, nerve supplywhat chamber of of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation?RAwhat chamber of the heart is responsible for pulmonary circulation?RVwhat chamber of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation?LAwhat chamber of the heart is responsible for systemic circulation?LVWhat is the largest artery in the body?aortawhat 2 things can be caused by Elevated levels of cholesterol?1) Atherosclerosis 2) CADwhat are the 4 functions of Cholesterol?1) Waterproofs the skin 2) lipid component of plasma membranes 3) main constituent of bile 4) precursor of several steroid hormoneswhat are the 2 major lipids in the body?1) Cholesterol 2) triglycerideswhere is the majority of bloodstream cholesterol synthesized?Liverwhat are the 3 important types of lipoprotiens?1) Low-density lipoprotiens 2) High-density lipoprotiens 3) Triglcerideswhat type of lipoprotien is known as "Bad Cholesterol"?LDL'swhat type of lipoprotiens is known as "good cholesterol"?HDLwhat type of lipoprotiens tx cholesterol to peripheral tissues?LDL'swhat type of lipoprotiens carries cholesterol away from the arteries and to the liver?HDLwhat type of lipoprotiens are the chemical form of fat, and are not immediately used, but just tx to adipose tissue for storage?Triglcerideswhat is known as the pacemaker of the heart?sinoatrial node (SA node)what provides the speed and rhythm of the heart?hearts conduction systemwhat 5 things can affect the Heart's conduction system?1) lack of O2 2) Trauma 3) Electrolyte imbalance 4) Chemical toxicity 5) Medicationswhat supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart?Coronary circulatory systemwhere does the coronary arteries originate from?the Aortawhere does the myocardial tissue receive blood though?Coronary arterieswhat does occulsions/clots in the coronary arteries cause?death to the myocardium tissuewhat results from death from the myocardium tissue?MIwhat is the pressure of blood against the walls?BPwhat is the optimal BP?120/80what BP is HTN?140/90what is the force of the heart as it pumps blood into the arteries and through the circulatory system?Systolicwhat is the force of the arteries as they resist the blood flow?Diastolicwhat regulates cardio activity to ensure tissue perfusion meets the demand for O2 and nutrients?Homeostatic mechanismswhat are the 3 factors that affect tissue perfusion?1) Cardiac output 2) Peripheral Resistance 3) BPwhat ensures that blood flow changes occur at the appropriate time?Cardiovascular regulationwhat focuses on controlling cardiac output and BP to restore adeqaute blood flow after a drop in BP?Regulatory mechanismswhat are the 2 subdivisions of Homeostatic mechanisms?1) Cardiovascular regulation 2) regulatory mechanismswhat are the 3 types of regulatory mechanisms?1) Autoregulation 2) Nueral Mechanisms 3) Endocrine Mechanismswhat type of regulatory mechanisms is the 1st to respond where local factors change the pattern of blood flow through capillaries? (+/- in response to chemical changes)Autoregulationwhat type of regulatory mechanisms Respond to changes in arterial pressure/blood-O2 levels sensed at specific sites?Nueral mechanismswhat type of regulatory mechanisms releases hormones that enhance short-term adjustments and that direct long-term changes in cardiovascular performance?Endocrine Mechanismswhat organs are involved in regulating BP?Heart Blood vessels Kidneys Brainwhat organ regulates BP by contracting faster and harder?heartwhat organ regulates BP by stimulating the release of hormones?Brainwhat organ regulates BP by constricting or dialating causing +/- in BPBlood vesselswhat organ regulates BP by+/- urine output?kidneyswhat is the state of having high BP?HTNwhat is the pressure when the heart ejects blood?Systolicwhat is the pressure when heart relaxes/refills?Diastolicwhat 2 Dx account for almost all occurrences of CVD?HTN Hyperlipidemiawhat hormones regulate BP?NPI/EPI (adernal meduala) Antidiuretic hormone (posterior pituitary gland)what are the 4 functions of Angiotensin II?Causes Na retension and K loss in kidneys stimulates secretion of ADH Stimulates thirst Stimulate cariac output/constrictes aerioleswhat appears in blood after the release of the enzyme renin from the kidneys?Angiotensin IIwhat is released by the kidneys and stimulates production of RBCs and increases the volume/viscosity of blood improving O2 carrying capacity?EPOWhat is produced in the heart in response to excessive stretching in the atria/ventricles? Action: exact opposite of Angiotensin IINatriuretic peptideswhat is described as low BP?Hypotension?what can cause Hypotension?Meds Heart probs Dehydration Nutritional deficiences blood loss/postural changes Thyroid abnormalitieswhat is a serious condition that occurs when not enough blood flows through the body?Hypovolemic shockwhat are 2 causes of hypovolemic shock?Uncontrolled internal/external bleedingwhat are 3 types of Coronary artery disorders?CAD atherosclerosis Angina Pectoriswhat is caused by plaque build up in coronary arteries?CADwhat is the hardening of the arteries and can result in decreased blood flow to the myocardium?Atherosclerosiswhat involves blockage of the coronary arteries and is caused by atherosclerosis/ coronary artery spasms?Againa pectorisencompasses a spectrum of CAD including unstable angina/MIAcute coronary syndromewhat is necrosis of the cardiac cells due to O2 deprivation?MIwhat is another term for MI?Heart attackis caused by complete blockage of the affected arteryMIwhat are the 2 types of Cerebralvascular disorders?1) Stroke 2) Cerebralvascular aneurysmwhat is a rupture of a blood vessel supplying the brain?Cerebralvascular Aneurysmwhat is any disorder that affects the vessels in the peripheral circulation?Peripheral Vascular Disorderswhat is the main cause of PVD in the extremities?Antherosclerotic plaquewhat are infections that can affect the myocardium?Rheumatic Heart Disorderswhat is the inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves?endocarditiswhat are 3 examples of Rheumatic Heart disorders?Endocarditis Heart murmur Rheumatic feverwhat is an abnormal heart sound that is caused by congenital malformations, inflammation, MI, HTN, rheumatic fever.Heart murmurwhat is a streptococcal infection that can cause valvular disorders?Rheumatic feverwhat are abnormalities of the heart that u are born with?Congenital heart diseasecondition of the heart where cardiac efficiency has decreased?heart failureWhen the heart stops beatingcardiac arrestwhat is abnormal heartbeat?Arrhythmiaheartbeat less than 60 (SLOW)BradycardiaHeartbeat greater than 100 (FAST)tachycardiawhat is the most serious form of arrhythmia?V-PHIB