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Terms in this set (21)

• Glucose- The main function of glucose is to provide energy to body cells, but carbohydrates also provide other essential functions. A rise in blood glucose triggers the pancreas to secrete the hormone insulin, which allows glucose to be taken into muscle and adipose tissue cells
• Glycogen- Glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrate in animals. It is a polysaccharide made up of highly branched chains of glucose molecules (Figure 4.7). The branched structure allows it to be broken down quickly when glucose is needed. In humans, glycogen is stored in the muscles and in the liver. Muscle glycogen provides glucose to the muscle as a source of energy during activity; liver glycogen releases glucose into the bloodstream for delivery to cells throughout the body. We don't consume glycogen in our food because glycogen present in animal muscles is broken down soon after slaughter and thus is not present when the meat is consumed.
• Lactose intolerance-Lactose intolerance is a condition in which there is not enough of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine to digest the milk sugar lactose. Most infants produce enough of the enzyme lactase to digest the lactose in milk, but in many people the enzyme's activity decreases with age. In the United States, between 30 and 50 million people are lactose intolerant; it is more common in some ethnic and racial groups than in others. Up to 80% of African Americans, 80 to 100% of Native Americans, and 90 to 100% of Asian Americans, but only about 15% of Caucasian Americans, are lactose intolerant (Figure 4.10).5 Lactose intolerance may also occur as a result of an intestinal infection or other disease. It is then referred to as secondary lactose intolerance and may disappear when the other condition is resolved.
• Type 1 diabetes- Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune system destroys the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Once these cells are destroyed, insulin is no longer made in the body. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed before the age of 30 and accounts for only 5 to 10% of diagnosed cases of diabetes. It is not known what causes the immune system to malfunction and attack its own cells, but genetics, viral infections, exposure to toxins, and abnormalities in the immune system have been hypothesized to play a role. Some ketones are used as fuel by muscle and adipose tissue, but in type 1 diabetes, they are produced more rapidly than they can be used and thus accumulate in the blood. , insulin production is absent, so insulin must be injected. Exercise, diet. The goal of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range
• Type 2 diabetes- Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of diabetes. It accounts for 90 to 95% of all cases of diabetes in the United States. It occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to keep blood glucose in the normal range. This can occur because body cells lose their sensitivity to insulin, a condition called insulin resistance, or when the amount of insulin secreted is reduced. When tissues are resistant to insulin, large amounts are required for cells to take up enough glucose to meet their energy needs. Type 2 diabetes is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Risk of developing this disease is increased in people with a family history of diabetes; in those who are overweight, particularly if they carry their extra body fat in the abdominal region; and in those who have a sedentary lifestyle. Evidence is accumulating that the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased by diets high in refined carbohydrates. , ketoacidosis usually does not develop because there is enough insulin to allow some glucose to be used, so fewer ketones are produced. often be treated with medications that increase pancreatic insulin production, decrease glucose production by the liver, enhance insulin action, or slow carbohydrate digestion to keep blood glucose in the normal range. In some cases of type 2 diabetes, injected insulin is needed to achieve normal blood glucose levels.