PostClassical 600CE to 1200CE
We start the postclassical age of APWH on October 11th. I anticipate testing Nov 15th and Nov 16th.
Terms in this set (66)
This nomadic trading people based in the Middle East contributed to the growth of long-distance trade routes by using camels to travel through deserts in the Middle East and North Africa (Sahara). Arabs lived in separate tribal groups in Arabia prior to the introduction of Islam. Afterward, they spread their culture across the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, and Spain.
Difficulty of Islam and Hindu co-existance
The differences in the two religions - Islam and Hinduism - were so profound that it was nearly impossible to reconcile them. Islam emphasized equality, and Hinduism was squarely based on the hierarchical caste system. Islam expected believers to be completely submissive to one god, Allah; Hinduism's concept of a universal spirit easily encompassed many gods.
This long-distance trade, conducted along the Silk Roads and across the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, contributed to cross-cultural diffusion by bringing merchants and travelers from various locations into contact. These trade routes helped spread scientific and technological traditions and artistic styles, as well as epidemic disease, such as the bubonic plague.
Muhammad (570-632 C.E.)
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam.
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who 'submits' (in Arabic, Islam means 'submission') to the will of God.
the one and only god of the Islam religion. _____ is the same god Jews and Christians worship, the three monotheistic faiths differ over HOW God interacts with humankind.
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire. (See also Abbasid Caliphate; Sokoto Caliphate; Umayyad Caliphate.)
Where did Islam begin?
Muslims around the world face this building during prayer. One of the 5 pillars requires every Muslim to perform the Hajj
pilgrimage at least once in his or her lifetime.
Expansion of Islam
The spread of Islam across the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, South Asia and Southeast Asia resulted from a combination of military conquest (particularly under the Umayyad and Abbasid Empires),Trans-Eurasian trade, and missionary activity. The area controlled by Muslim powers ultimately became known as Dar al-lslam, meaning "all under Islam."
Five Pillars of Islam
1. Faith: There is no God but God and Muhammad is his prophet
2. Ritual Prayer: 5 times a day; must wash away impurities
3. Almsgiving: Give to further Islam in the community and abroad
4. Fasting: Must fast during the month of Ramadan unless the person is physically not able to
5. Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
Diffusion of Islam into Africa in the PostClassical era
Until about 1450, Islam provided the major external contact between Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world. The civilizations that developed in this era were quite diverse - from the Sudanic empires of Mali, Ghana, and Songhay to the city-states along the Swahili coast in east Africa
People of the Book
Jews and Christians as regarded by the Qur'an; promised full freedom to practice their faith in return for paying a poll tax guaranteeing them physical and economic protection and exemption from military service
Development of Arabic Numerals
Arabic numerals or Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals are the ten digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). They are descended from the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed by Indian mathematicians, in which a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a single number. The Indian numerals are traditionally thought to have been adopted by the Persian and Arab mathematicians in India, and passed on to the Arabs further west.
This Chinese dynasty existed from 589 AD to 618 AD, and it ended what was known as the Age of Confusion. Under this dynasty, the Grand Canal was built and linked the Yangtze River with the Yellow River. The Great Wall of China was also rebuilt during this time.
Built in 7th century during reign of Yangzi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long.
This Chinese dynasty ruled from 618 to 907 C.E.Under the Tang, trade and scholarship flourished, and its capital city of Changan grew to be the largest in the world. Buddhism, supported by Empress Wu,initially spread greatly throughout China. However, a later backlash resulted in an anti-Buddhist campaign that weakened the religion's influence. The subsequent rise of neo-Confucianism was influential throughout East Asia
Focus on: Civil Service in China
The bureaucracy contributed to China's stability because it generally stayed in effect even as dynasties changed. Regardless of who was in charge, the leaders generally depended on the bureaucracy to carry out the functions of government. And remember, since appointment to a civil service position was earned by a strong performance on the civil service examination, the civil service was a meritocracy (earned) as opposed to an aristocracy (inherited).
Tang and Song innovations
The technological, social, and cultural innovations from these dynasties included the first use of the compass; the invention of a water-powered clock,gunpowder, and printing press with movable type; the rise of densely populated urban areas; the growth of NeoConfucian thought; the use of stylized landscape painting; and the development of paper currency and flying cash, a form of credit.
spread of gunpowder
This spread from East Asia to the Islamic world and then to Western Europe,exemplifying the scientific and technological diffusion that resulted from Eurasian trade routes and the cross-cultural interactions of traders,missionaries, and travelers.
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly
Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople.
Constantinople's Geographic Advantage
Constantinople became one of the great cities of the world during the period from 600 to 1450C.E. partly because of its
geographic location on the Bosporus, a narrow connection between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. From that position the city was central to long distance trade that connected east Asia, India, and Russia to western Europe.
This Chinese dynasty ruled from 960 to 1279 C.E. Under the Song, Significant innovations in agriculture, trade, monetary practices, and manufacturing led to an economic revolution. The southern capital of Hangzhou became a powerful trade city and center of commerce. The Song navy became a major maritime power thanks to such technology as the magnetic compass and cotton sails.
a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. _____ supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and southeastern Europe, especially along the Silk Road. One reason for the expansion of trade in the postclassical era
Most Sacred place of Islam. It is the birthplace of Muhammad and location of Ka'aba. It is the holiest city in Islam.
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Muslims use the word in a religious context to refer to three types of struggles: an internal struggle to maintain faith, the struggle to improve the Muslim society, or the struggle to defend Islam.
Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals; rejected the luxurious life of the Umayyads; pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path (ascetic); similar to Christian and Buddhist Monks
This rift occurred after the death of the Muslim prophet Muhammad in 632 C.E. Shiites believe that Islamic leaders should be selected from the prophet's bloodline while Sunnis believe that leaders should be the wisest members of the strongest tribes. Today, the majority of Muslims throughout the world are Sunnis.
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258.
The House of Wisdom
This institute of learning was established in Baghdad in 830 C.E. The House of Wisdom collected and translated classic Greek, Indian and Persian texts into Arabic.
Arab sailing vessel with lateen or triangular sails; symbolizes the importance of trade in the spread of the Islamic faith.It is less technologically advance than the Chinese junks, but it was a ship more commonly used
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders.
"AFRICANITY": 1st Similar characteristic shared among African societies.
1. The spread of the Bantu-speaking peoples meant that even though languages differed, common vocabulary allowed some
understanding between neighboring Bantu speakers.
"AFRICANITY": 2nd Similar characteristic shared among African societies.
2. Most Africans also shared similar animistic religions that remained in place even after the spread of Islam and Christianity.
"AFRICANITY": 3rd Similar characteristic shared among African societies.
3. The rituals of drumming, dancing, and divination were similar, as well as the rhythm of and instruments for music.
A common form of social organization in Africa during and after the Bantu migrations is sometimes called a ___ ____, which has
no hierarchy of government officials but instead relies on kinship relationships or other forms of personal obligations for order. In _____ _____, people often live in villages of extended families and tend to live fairly self-sufficient lives.
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
This term refers to religious individuals who travel to other lands in an attempt to spread their religion by converting the local population. Both Buddhism and Christianity are considered missionary religions that spread through the efforts of missionaries. During the Ming dynasty, Jesuit missionaries visited China. Although they brought European science and technology to China, they failed to convert the population to Christianity.
an astronomical instrument for taking the altitude of the sun or stars and for the solution of other problems in astronomy and navigation: used by Greek astronomers from about 200 b.c. and by Arab astronomers from the Middle Ages until superseded by the sextant.
These European banks developed during the Middle Ages to aid trade. Along with innovations such as bills of exchange, or bank drafts, and credit, the rise of banking houses supported the development of interregional trade in luxury goods.
Cultural Importance of the Grand Canal
More than just a technological achievement, the Grand Canal served as a basis for political and cultural unity as well, making it possible for China to maintain hegemony over east Asia for many years. The canal was the major conduit for internal trade in China until railroads were built in the 19th century, and even today it still serves vital trade functions.
Economic Importance of the Grand Canal
China's Grand Canal facilitated trade between northern and southern China, fully integrating the economies of both regions into a network that allowed food crops to be transported easily across the empire.
(adj.) Near the sea; concerning with shipping or navigation.
1. the peninsula where present-day Spain and Portugal are located
2. Conquered and made into "Muslim Spain". Battle of Tours occurred here.
3. Christians began their "Reconquista" or Crusade to remove Muslim influence from this whole peninsula.
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Muhammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
Islam and Merchants
The role of merchants in Islamic society was more
prestigious than in other societies in Europe and Asia at the time.
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Islam and Patriarchy
Islam does believe women and men are spiritually equal.
Some practices now associated with Islam were common CULTURAL customs in Central Asia and the Byzantine Empire before the time of Muhammad. For example, women often covered their heads and faces. This practice solidified
under Islam, with most women observing hijab, a term that can refer either to the practice of dressing modestly or to a specific type of covering.
Overall, Islamic women enjoyed a higher status
than Christian or Jewish women. Islamic women were allowed to inherit property and retain ownership after marriage. They could remarry if widowed, and they could receive a cash settlement if divorced. Under some conditions, a wife could initiate divorce. Moreover, women could practice birth control. Islamic women who testified in a court under shariah were to be protected from retaliation, but their testimony was worth only half that of a man.
Indian Ocean Trade
connected to Europe, Africa, and China.; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.
These communities were founded along key trade routes by merchants working in a foreign region, such as Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region or Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia. These communities contributed to cross-cultural interaction by introducing the merchants' cultural traditions (such as religion) into new regions.
Expansion of Buddhism
Tang Dynasty: Political
Tang Dynasty expanded the Civil Service Exam and the number of bureaucrats in the Chinese state. Candidates for the bureaucracy had to pass an extremely rigorous civil service examination. The exam system had a tremendous impact on Chinese culture. Since the examination was difficult, education became increasingly important in China, a development that fostered economic growth for many centuries.
Further, serving in the bureaucracy was highly regarded. So, just as communities today might take pride in producing an Olympic athlete or a noted actor, communities in China took pride in their natives who won a good position working for the government.
A printing system developed by the Chinese (Tang/Song era) in which wood blocks were carved with enough characters to print entire page
Chinese term for checks
The system of __________ became the model for the banks of the modem era.
Exemplifies Chinese banking innovations that encouraged trade.
The _________ were educated in Confucian philosophy, had more money than their ancestors, and, because of their numbers, became the most influential social class in China.
Tang Dynasty Expansion
Like the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang extended imperial borders.
The most important new crop introduced into China during the Tang and Song periods was _________________. It allowed peasants in the warmer agricultural region of southern China to grow two crops a year. Thus, both land redistribution and
food surpluses were instrumental in spreading China's prosperity.
Like theAbbasid civilizations, Song China featured growing urban areas.
a thin, beautiful pottery invented in China, began to be traded widely in the postclassical age, like Silk Porcelain exemplifies China's role as a nonagricultural producer/early industrial power.
Compare and Contrast Islamic/Chinese Technology
legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins
PostClassical Technology: Camel Saddles
As use of the camel spread, people developed as many as 15 types of camel saddles for different purposes.
A temple complex built in the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu. The royal monuments at Angkor Wat are evidence of Indian cultural influences on Southeast Asia.
When Khmer rulers, who had become Buddhist, added Buddhist sculptures and artwork to the complex without destroying any Hindu artwork.
Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north
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