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Kotler|Armstrong Principles of Marketing Chapter 4 Vocabulary

Marketing information system (MIS)

People, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort , analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers

Internal databases

Electronic collections of information obtained from data sources within the company

Marketing intelligence

The systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about competitors and developments in the marketing environment

Marketing research

The systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization

Exploratory research

Marketing research to gather preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses

Descriptive research

Marketing research to better describe marketing problems, situations, or markets, such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers

Casual research

Marketing research to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships

Secondary data

Information that already exists somewhere, having been collected for another purpose

Primary data

Information collected for the specific purpose at hand

Online databases

computerized collections of information available from online commercial sources or via the internet

Observational research

The gathering of primary data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations

Survey research

The gathering of primary data by asking people questions about their knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behavior

Single-source data systems

Electronic monitoring systems that link consumers exposure to television advertising and promotion (measured using television meters)

Environmental research

The gathering of primary data by selecting matched groups of subjects, giving them different treatments, controlling related factors, and checking for differences in group responses

Focus group interviewing

Personal interviewing that involves inviting 6 to 10 people to gather for a few hours with a trained interviewer to talk about a product, service, or organization. The interviewer "focuses" the group discussion on important issues.

Online (Internet) marketing research

Collecting primary data through Internet surveys and online focus groups


A segment of the population selected for marketing research to represent the population as a whole

Customer relationship management (CRM)

The overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction

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