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Exam 1: Chapter 1-4 Summaries
Terms in this set (102)
Early biological explanations
For abnormal chid behavior this explanation favored locating the cause of the problem within the individual.
simplistic or inaccurate beliefs
In early biological explanations of child behavior, what kind of beliefs were sometimes led to about the causes of the behavior?
Early psychological appraoaches
Approaches that attempted to acknowledge inborn processes with environmental conditions that shape behaviors, emotions, and cognitions.
Greater attention to the problems
In recent years what has improved the quality of life and mental health for children and youth?
societal recognition and sensitivity to children needs
greater attention to the problems of children and youth resulted from what?
defining a psychological disorder
This involves agreement about particular patterns of behavioral, cognitive, and physical symptoms shown by an individual.
terms used to describe abnormal behavior are meant to what?
terms used to describe abnormal behavior are NOT meant to be used as what?
defining abnormal behavior
This requires judgement concerning the degree to which a persons behavior is maladaptive or harmful as well as dysfunctional or impaired.
how do children acquire psychological strengths and weaknesses in a hallmark of abnormal child psychology?
within and between individual
how do contributors to abnormal behavior vary with individuals who have similar disorders?
study of psychological disorders
involves attempts to describe the presenting problems and abilities, to understand contributing causes, and to treat or prevent them.
what helps to describe the course and nature of normal and abnormal development?
means that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings.
means that similar outcomes stem from different early experience.
clear understanding of normal and abnormal child development and behavior
what is needed to decide which problems are likely to continue and which might be outgrown?
one in eight
about how many children have a mental health problem that significantly impairs functioning?
form and severity
a significant portion of children do not grow out of their childhood difficulties, although how are the ways in which these difficulties are expressed likely to change over time?
how are children who experience more social and economic disadvantages or inequality and children exposed to more violent, inadequate, or toxic environments distributed between children with mental health problems?
biological sex, ethnic background, and cultural surroundings
what are all important contributors to the manner in which a child's behavioral and emotional problems are expressed to and recognized by other?
child and society
many childhood problems can have lifelong consequences for who?
study of causes of abnormal child behavior
involves theory and findings on biological, psychological, social, and cultural/ethnic factors.
genetic and neurobiological (among other)
what contributors do biological factors include?
family patterns, peer relations, community factors, and cultural expectations
what are major societal contributors to child problems?
allows us to make educated guesses and predictions about behavior that is based on existing knowledge.
in what way do theories allow us to explore possible explanations?
this provides a useful framework for organizing the study of abnormal child psychology around milestones and sequences in physical, cognitive, social-emotional, and emotional development.
multiple interactive causes
in addition to the major developmental changes that typically occur for abnormal behavior, what is also important to consider?
these are all underlying assumptions to what?
-it is multiply determined
-the child and the environment are interdependent
-involves continuities and discontinuities of behavior patterns overtime
biological, psychological, and sociocultural
the complexity of abnormal child behavior requires consideration of the full range of what that influences children development?
children's development is _________, which means that early patterns of adaption evolve over time and transform into higher-order functions in a structured, predictable manner.
the ability for brain functions to undergo continual changes as they adapt to environmental demands is known as what?
what to genetic influences depend on?
what influences behavior, emotions, and thoughts? environmental events are necessary for this influence to be expressed.
gene-environment interactions (GxE)
this explains how the environment shapes our genotypes through a process known as "epigenetics".
include knowledge of brain structures, the endocrine system, and neurotransmitters, all of which perform their functions in and integrated, harmonious fashion.
emotional reactivity and regulation
what are critical aspects of early and subsequent development, affecting the quality of children's social interactions and relationships throughout the lifespan?
applied behavior analysis, principles of classical conditioning, and social learning and social cognition theories
what are three major approaches to abnormal behavior based on principles of learning?
social learning and social cognition
what theories place more significance on cognitive processes than overt behavior.
What approach to abnormal child behavior emphasizes the evolving infant-caregiver relationship, which helps the infant regulate behavior and emotions, especially under conditions or threat or stress?
social and environmental settings
what does children's normal and abnormal development depend on? it includes the child's family and peer system and the larger social and cultural context.
scientific approach (to abnormal child psychology)
in abnormal child psychopathology is a way of thinking about how best to understand and answer questions of interest, not just an accumulation of specific methods, practices, or procedures
what requires that theories be backed up by evidence from controlled studies and that observations be checked and repeated before conclusions are drawn?
what meets many of the criteria for pseudoscience because demonstrations of benefit are based on anecdotes or testimonials? the child's baseline abilities and the possibility of spontaneous improvement are ignored, and typical scientific procedures are disavowed.
scientist play by the rules of science, are prepared to admit when they are wrong, and are open to change
what distinguishes science from pseudoscience
a multistage process that involves generating hypotheses, devising an overall plan, selecting measures, developing a research design and procedures, gathering and analyzing the data, and interpreting the results.
ones theory of abnormal child behavior
this determines the variables studied, the choice of research methods, and the interpretation of research findings.
nature and distribution of childhood problems
This addresses questions through epidemiological research into the incidence and prevalence of childhood disorders and competencies in client-referred and community samples.
common research topics (in abnormal child psychopathology)
in abnormal child psychology these are all what?
-risk and protective factors
-moderating and mediating variables
-interventions for childhood disorders
standardized, reliable, and valid
the measures and methods used to study child and family behavior must be what?
self report and informed report
these kinds of reports include unstructured clinical interviews, structured diagnostic interviews, and questionaries.
this kind of method is used to assess the relationship between physiological processes and behavior; these methods include measures of heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, pupil dilation, and electrical conductance of the skin.
this kind of measurement link electrical brain activity with ongoing thinking, emotion, or state of arousal.
what is an example of an electrophysiological measurement?
this method is used to examine the structure and/or function of the brain, and connections between parts of the brain.
this kind of method is used to directly observe the behavior of the child and others in unstructured settings, such as the home, classroom, or playground, and in structured task situations in the laboratory or clinic.
includes informed consent and assent, voluntary participation, confidentiality, and anonymity, and non-harmful procedures.
meets ethical standards
researchers seek advice from colleagues and have their research evaluated by institutional ethics review committees, what does this ensure?
who is the final responsibility with for the ethical integrity of any research project?
degree to which the investigator can manipulate the experimental variable (alternatively, must rely on examining the covariation of variables of interest)
how can we distinguish between non-experimental and experimental research strategies?
type of research when a sample is followed over time, with data collection at certain intervals.
type of research where a sample is identified at the current time and the sample members asked for information relating to an earlier time.
type of research that evaluates a specific variable under conditions that only resemble the situation for which the researcher wishes to generalize.
involves an intensive, usually anecdotal, observation and analysis of an individual child.
single case design
involves repeated assessments of the same sample over time, the replication of treatment affects within the same subject, and the subjects serving as his or her own control,
ABAB (reversal design), and multiple baseline design
What are two common examples of single case designs?
between group designs
compare the behavior of groups of individuals assigned to different conditions, such as an experimental group, or a comparison group and a control group.
cross sectional research
different individuals at different ages or stages of development are studies at the same point in time. in longitudinal research, the same individuals are studied at different ages or stages of development.
focuses on narrative accounts, description, interpretation, context, and meaning, and strives to understand the phenomenon for the participants perspective and in the context in which it is experienced.
this is directed at defining and measuring the child's behaviors, cognitions, and emotions of concern, the environmental circumstances that may contribute to these problems, and the child's strengths and competencies.
assessments are meaningful to the extend that they result in _________ _____________.
assessment and intervention
what must a close and continuing partnership exist between?
age, gender, and culture
what influences how children's symptoms and behavior are expressed and recognized, and have implications for selecting the most appropriate methods of assessment and treatment.
what does the age inappropriateness, the severity, and the pattern of symptoms, rather than individual symptoms, usually define?
three purposes for assessment
the following describes what?
-description and diagnosis that determines the nature and possible causes of the child's problem
-prognosis that predicts future behavior under specified conditions
-treatment planning and evolution
multimethod assessment approach
what approach does clinical assessment rely on?
what is the name of the approach that emphasizes obtaining information from different informants in a variety of settings, using a variety of methods.
what continues to be the most universally used assessment procedure with parents and children?
interviewers use their performed style and formate to pursue various questions in an informal and flexible manner.
include specific questions designed to elicit information in a relatively consistent manner regardless of who is conducting the interview
what type of assessment evaluates the child's thought, feelings, and behaviors in specific settings and uses this information to formulate hypotheses about the nature of the problem and what can be done about it.
global checklists, and problem focused rating scale
how can reports concerning child behavior and adjustment be obtained?
tasks given under standard conditions with the purpose of assessing some aspect of the child's knowledge. skill, and personality.
Evaluating a child's ____________ ___________ is a key ingredient in clinical assessments for a wide range of childhood disorders.
a type of test that presents children with ambiguous stimuli to assess their inner thoughts and feelings that reflect aspects of their personality.
objective personality test
a type of test that assess traits such as whether a chid is timid or bold, agreeable or disagreeable, dependent or undependable, tense or relaxed, reflective or unreflective
attempts to link brain functioning with objective measures of behavior that are known to depend on central nervous system functioning
refers to a system for representing the major categories of child psychopathology and the relations above them.
refers to the assignment of cases to categories of the classification system.
categories and dimensions
childhood disorders have been classified using what?
informed professional consensus and overt symptoms
what have the categorical classification systems such ad the DSM-5 been primarily based one?
this approach assumes that many independent dimensions or traits exist and that all children poses these to varying degrees.
mental illness and time
what do the terminology and focus of early classification systems reflect the major theoretical views on? a shift to a more objective, informed approach occurred by the 1990s and continuous today.
The DSM-5 incorporates the use of __________ to define more homogeneous subgrouping of individuals with the disorder who share particular features and to communicate information that is to children.
failing to capture the complexity of child psychopathology
what has the DSM-5 been criticized for?
what does the use of diagnostic labels facilitate among professionals?
prevention, treatment, and management
interventions for childhood disorders cover a wide range of strategies and settings related to what?
child and family functioning and societal importance
what are the treatment goals for childhood treatment?
responsibilities, rights, and relationships that connect children to their parents
both ethically and legally, clinicians who work with children are required to think not only about the impact that their action will have on the child they see, but also on what?
psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, cognitive behavioral, client centered, family, biological, and combined approaches
What are the diverse number of treatments for children and families?
best practice guidelines
these are systematically developed statements derived from research findings and clinical consensus that assists clinicians and families with decisions regarding appropriate treatment with decisions regarding appropriate treatments for specific childhood problems.
goal of new treatment initiatives
to better serve unrecognized amd underserved populations of children with metal health problems and to translate evidence-based practices into real-world settings in ways the will significantly reduce the personal, social, and monetary costs associated with these problems.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 1-Introduction to Normal and Abnormal Beha…
Chapter 2-Theories and Causes
Chapter 4-Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment
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