15 terms

American Reform Movements #3

Reform movements from the late 1800's to the early 1900's (Civil Service Reform and Industrial Reform)
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Spoils System
Andrew Jackson's practice of rewarding his political supporters with government jobs.
Civil Service
A system in which government employees are chosen according to their educational qualifications, performance on examinations, and work experience.
Pendleton Act
(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
Industrialization
A key factor in the increase of immigration to the United States. Includes the following: growth in manufacturing, increased embrace of mechanical production, expanding of natural-resource forms of energy, spread of the wage-labor system, and the emergence of the factory
Monopoly
Complete control of a product or business by one person or group
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Interstate Commerce Commission
Ensured that railroads charged fair rates and did not favor big shippers.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Lochner v. New York
(1905) Declared unconstitutional a New York act limiting the working hours of bakers due to a denial of the 14th Amendment rights.
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company v. Illinois
1886. Ruling: States had regulatory power within its lines. Only congress could regulate interstate commerce.
Robber Baron
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Social Darwinism
Although rejected by biologists, this theory from the 1870s is often associated with Herbert Spencer and is said to have justified the competition of laissez-faire capitalism, the new racial superiority ideas, and imperialist policies.
Populism
1880's political movement favoring nationalizing banks and railroads to protect farms and rural towns from the private power and corruption of big corporations.
Grange Movement
A movement for social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.