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anatomy Exam 2 Membrane potential (done)
Terms in this set (100)
Hyperpolarization can result ____ ___ ___ of anions through the plasma membrane.
without; the; movement
___ and ___ ___ both affect the movement of ions.
Concentration; electrical; gradients
all living cells experience periodic reversals of membrane polarity. (True/False)
Threshold voltage is relevant only to ___ ___.
___ ___ cells and ____ have voltage-gated channels.
only; muscle; neurons
Normally, calcium ion diffusion through a membrane channel has a ___ effect on the magnitude of a membrane potential.
___ ___ do not involve the cell membrane's potential reaching zero.
1. If a cell's RMP is -70 mV, then that RMP is less than the cell's potential when the cell is ___.
1. Linear DNA is not directly involved in the ___ ___ ___ that comprise membrane ___ and ___.
synthesis; of; proteins; channels; carriers
1. The building blocks that are linked together at ribosomes to make ___ and ___ proteins are not synthesized at the ___.
channel; carrier; ribosomes
1. Reduced chlorine atoms can ___ into a cell through specific ___.
1. ___ pumping of ___ major ions result, in part, to establishment of a ___ ___.
Unequal; two; membrane; potential
1. ___ living cells have a membrane potential.
1. Repolarization from a depolarized state involves an ___ in ___ ___.
increase; membrane; potential
1. Pumping potassium ions through a plasma membrane promotes an ___ in membrane potential.
1. Letting a perfume bottle nozzle pop up after a spray would be similar to a membrane site completing ___ at the end of an action potential.
1. After hyperpolarization, a membrane must ___ in order to reach ___.
1. A hair cannot experience an ___ ___.
1. Chloride ions are pumped ___ of the cell by ___ in the cell ___.
out; carriers; membrane
1. A graded potential may initiate an action potential in a ___ or ___ cell.
1. In order to reach threshold from the ___, a membrane potential must decrease.
1. At the peak of an action potential, the ___ border of the membrane is more negative than the ___ border.
1. Holding a perfume nozzle down would be similar to a ___ at a specific membrane site during an action potential.
1. A region of the membrane is unresponsive to another stimulus while that region is in the ___ ___.
1. Hyperpolarizations do not lead to ___ ___.
1. Resting potentials are always ___.
1. A membrane potential is a difference in ___ ___ between ___ different sites.
electrical; charge; two
1. Keratinocytes experience action potentials. (True/False)
1. A membrane potential develops partly because cell membranes are "leakier" to ___ ions than to ___ ions.
1. Opening a ___ chloride channel during the resting potential would cause the membrane potential to ___.
1. Action potentials are the result of ion movement through ___ ___
1. Ligand-gated channels cannot perform ___ diffusion but can allow ___ diffusion through a ___.
facilitated; simple; membrane
1. It takes more than one action potential on a membrane to be considered an ___.
1. The ___ (fatty acid region) of a plasma membrane is not ___.
1. A membrane potential of -70 mV is ___ than a membrane potential of -80 mV.
1. There is always a difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside border of a membrane during a ___ ___.
1. ___ channels are not found in all types of cells.
1. Movement of ions through ___ channels is always passive.
1. Ions move from ___ concentration to ___ concentration through membrane channels.
1. Sodium-potassium pumps consist of polymers containing ___ bonds.
1. Nucleotides are required for the formation of ___ and ___ in a cell membrane.
1. During an action potential, there are ___ moments when the membrane potential is zero.
1. A ___ ___ can occur in response to the opening of ligand-gated potassium channels.
1. Graded potentials can be a ___ or a ___.
1. The components of membrane channels and carriers are not ___ at the ___ ___.
synthesized; cell; membrane
1. Ions can move from higher concentration to lower concentration through membrane ___ and ___.
1. ___ ___ ___ is ___ to maintain concentration gradients for Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl- ions.
Primary; active; transport; necessary
1. Depolarization does not affect a cell's ___ membrane potential.
1. Leak channels consist of ___.
1. Opening a mechanically-gated channel could result in a ___ in membrane potential.
1. Translation at ___ is required for the formation of ___ found within all membrane ___ and ___.
ribosomes; proteins; channels; carriers
1. Voltage-gated potassium channels make the inside border of a membrane become ___ near the end of an ___ ___
negative; action; potential.
1. Afferent and efferent impulses in the nervous system's feedback loops involve ___ and ___ of ___ channels.
opening; closing; voltage-gated
1. Sodium-potassium pump activity helps contribute to a cell's ___ ___.
1. An __ involves a series of action potentials that appear to move as a "wave of ___" followed by a "wave of ___" along a membrane.
impulse; depolarization; repolarization
1. Anions tend to move toward ___-charged regions.
1. Depolarization is a ___ in membrane potential.
1. Calcium diffusing into a cell during the resting potential would ___ membrane potential.
1. ___ involve action potentials occurring along ___ sites on a ___ ___
Impulses; different; cell; membrane.
1. Carriers and channels in the cell membrane do not contain ___.
1. Action potentials are required for a person to experience ___ ___.
1. During a ___ ___, the resting membrane potential is still considered to be unchanged.
1. Voltage-gated channel proteins are coded for by genes in ___ ___.
1. Membrane potentials result, in part, from an ___ diffusion of ___ through the cell membrane.
1. Leak channels do not have ___.
1. The pumping of chloride ions through a plasma membrane would tend to ___ the membrane potential.
1. ___ sodium atoms can diffuse into a cell through channels.
1. Action potentials occur along neuron axons within the ___.
1. Opening a mechanically gated sodium channel in a hair ___ plexus may or may not initiate an ___ ___.
root; action; potential
1. When a membrane potential is moving away from the RMP, it can be a ___ or a ___.
1. Ions are moving through a cell membrane even during the ___ potential.
1. An impulse can be initiated without involving the opening of ___ or ___ channels.
1. An impulse requires ___ channels.
1. If an injection of potassium caused the [K+] in the ECF to exceed that of the cytosol, ___ would occur.
1. Movement toward threshold voltage from a depolarized condition does not always involve ___.
1. Cations tend to move toward ___-charged regions.
1. Adipocytes do not conduct ___.
1. Osteocytes and chondrocytes can experience ___ ___.
1. A refractory period is associated with ___ ___ but not ___ ___.
action; potentials; graded; potentials
1. Ions pass through ___ channels constantly.
1. A ___ ___ can occur in response to the opening of ligand-gated sodium channels.
1. Sodium ions diffuse into the cell through membrane ___.
1. Opening a ligand-gated calcium channel during the resting potential would ___ the membrane's potential.
1. Opening Ca2+ channels during the RMP causes the ___ border of the membrane to become less negative.
1. Calcium ions are pumped ___ of the cell via ___ transport.
1. One action potential at point X on a membrane is not an ___.
1. Initiation of an impulse requires an initial ___ in membrane potential.
1. When diffusing, cations and anions move __ their own concentration gradients.
1. The entire cytosol is not ___ charged compared to the entire ___.
1. The establishment of a RMP involves more diffusion of ___ out the cell and more pumping of ___ out of the cell.
1. A neuron or muscle would not be able to make voltage-gated channels if these cells lacked ___ ___.
1. An action potential may be initiated at a ___ ___.
1. It is not possible for a neuron or muscle cell to experience repeated action potentials without periods of ___.
1. The refractory period is a phenomenon associated with ___ channels in muscle cells and neurons.
1. Ligand-gated ___ channels are not responsible for bringing the membrane potential back to RMP after the membrane potential has temporarily become positive.
1. Establishing a RMP involves more diffusion of ___ out of the cell and less diffusion of sodium into the cell.
1. Chloride ions diffusing through a plasma membrane would ___ the membrane potential.
1. ___ a cell that has a RMP of -70 mV will result in the cell's membrane potential becoming more negative.
1. Resting potentials develop mainly because of unequal ___ and unequal ___ of ions.
1. When sodium ions are pumped through a plasma membrane, the membrane potential tends to ___.
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