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Old Growth Forest


Second Growth Forest


Tree Farm/Plantation


Clear Cutting


Strip Cutting


Selective Cutting


Surface Fires


Crown Fire


How does deforestation degrade natural capital

Decrease Soil Fertility through erosion, run-off eroded soil into aquatic areas, premature extinction, loss of habitat to native species and migratory species, Regional Climate change, Release of Co2, Acceleration of flooding

Forest Ecological Services

Chemical Cycling, Energy flow, Reduce Erosion, Purify Water and Air, Regulate climate, Store Carbon, Habitats

Forest Economic Services

Fuelwood, Lumber, Paper, Mining, Livestock grazing, Recreation, jobs

Years of Growth

Seedlings ...15 years remove weak trees, 30 years Clear Cut

Causes of Degradation of Tropical Forests

Not valuing services, timber and crop exports, government policies, poverty, population growth, roads, fires, logging,

Prescribed Fires


Debt for nature swaps

Countries who owe money can sell tropical forests to wealthy countries


Unfenced in grasslands




grass eating


shrub eating


managed grasslands


number of organisms grazing exceeds the carrying capacity


Reduction of primary productivity from under use

Riparian Zones

Lush vegetation along streams

Rotational Grazing


Conservation easements


Threats to National Parks

too small to sustain large species, non native species, ecological disruption

Buffer zone Concept

Protecting an inner core reserve

Habitat Corridors




Ecosystem 4 Point Plan

Map global ecosystems and create and inventory, Locate and protect most endangered ecosystems and species, restore as many ecosystems, make bio-friendly development a tax write-off

Biodiversity Hot Spots


Life Raft Ecosystems

Small ecosystems keeping the poor alive but are very stressed

4 ways to approach Eco-restoration

Restoration, Rehabilitation, Replacement, Creating Artifical ecosystems

Applied Ecology

Inventing habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people work and play.

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