Cold War U.S. History
Terms in this set (41)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949, an organization whose members include the United States, Canada, most Western European nations, and Turkey, all of whom agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all; mutual defense; formed to protect Western Europe from the Soviet Union
The_____________ was used during the Cold War to overcome a blockade of West Berlin created by the Soviet Union
(1945-1991) The period after the Second World War marked by rivalry and tension between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union. The Cold War ended when the Soviet government collapsed in 1991. The two powers never directly fought each other due to fears of a nuclear war but they participated in proxy wars and armed opposing sides of conflicts in regions around the world.
1947 declaration by President Truman that the United States would support nations that were being threatened by communism; provided support to Greece and Turkey; established the policy of CONTAINMENT; applied to the Middle East by Eisenhower
A cold war policy that called for containing communism to areas already under its influence. This policy was proposed by U.S. President Harry Truman. Led to greater involved in world affairs and in wars including the Korean War and Vietnam.
American General; he commanded U.S. troops in the South Pacific during World War II; accepted the surrender of the Japanese during WWII and oversaw the U.S. occupation of Japan; commanded UN forces in the Korean War; fired by Truman for disobeying civilian presidential orders during the Korean War
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of post-WWII Europe; reflected the policy of containment; helped to keep them from turning to communism/totalitarianism by restoring economic stability throughout Western Europe
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
As a result of the takeover of Cuba by Fidel Castro many people fled from Cuba to the ______________.
During the Korean War, President Harry Truman removed General Douglas MacArthur from command because MacArthur threatened the constitutional principle of _________ control of the military
One result of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was that the two nations formed competing military _________. ex. NATO and Warsaw Pact
1957 declaration that the United States would militarily and economically support Middle Eastern nations that were being threatened by communism; compared to the Truman Doctrine in that both are expressions of the policy of containment (seek to limit the spread of communism)
Apolitical theory that if one nation came under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control; justified involvement in the Vietnam War (in order to prevent Laos, Cambodia and other countries in Southeast Asia from becoming Communist)
Executive Order by Truman to investigate the possibility of communist spies in the government
House Un-American Activities Committee
(HUAC) investigative committee formed in the House of Representatives that came to focus on the threat of communism in the United States during World War II and the Cold War; accused of violating or suppressing the Constitutional rights of Americans
Loyalty review boards
These were established in 1947 in an effort to control possible communist influence in the American government. These boards were created to investigate the possibility of "security risks" working for the American government, and to determine if those people should lose their jobs.
shelters that people created in order to protect themselves from a nuclear attack during the Cold War; represented the fear and real danger the general population felt that a nuclear attack was imminent
Watkins v. United States (1957)
Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that held that the power of the United States Congress is not unlimited in conducting investigations, and that nothing in the U.S. Constitution gives it the authority to expose individuals' private affairs; aimed at HUAC
Sacco and Vanzett
two Italian-born anarchists, unfairly tried and convicted for armed robbery and murder in Massachusetts in 1920; represents negative effects of nativism and "red scare;" often compared to Rosenbergs case.
Husband and wife tried/excuted for treason under suspecision giving atomic bomb secrets to the Soviet Union
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities; compared to McCarthyism of the 1950's
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Margaret Chase Smith
A Maine congresswoman, the first woman to be elected to both the Senate and the House, who opposed McCarthyism and stayed in office despite attempts by Joseph McCarthy to push her out.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
The ______________ used military force against an aggressor nation for the first time in the early 1950s during the Korean War.
During the Cold War era, the United States and the Soviet Union were hesitant to become involved in direct military conflict mainly because of
the potential for global ___________ destruction
A 1960 incident in which the Soviet military used a guided missile to shoot down an American spy plane over Soviet territory. The incident increased Cold War tensions between the superpowers.
Cuban Missile Crisis
U.S. spy planes discover Soviet-built nuclear missile sites in Cuba, just 90 miles from Florida. After a 13-day standoff with the U.S. in which President Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba, the Soviets removed the missiles, ending a crisis that took the world to the brink of nuclear war.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
(1961) the failed attempt of Cuban exiles backed by the U.S. to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro
math and science
The Soviet Union's launch of the Sputnik satellite led the United States government to increase funding for ________ and _______ education in order to reach President John F. Kennedy goal of landing a man on the Moon.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The ____________________ (1962) influenced President John F. Kennedy's decision to negotiate the limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
1963- a treaty that banned the testing of nuclear weapons above ground and below water. Signed by USA, UK and USSR and was a measure of the desire to limit nuclear destruction after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Refusal to trade with Cuba in the hopes that economic hardship will encourage Cubans to move towards democracy and capitalism.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Jjoint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement. It gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970; wounding nine and killing four
War Powers Act of 1973
Declared the president could only commit US troops to a foreign war for 60 days before seeking congressional approval; Limited the authority of the president as commander in chief; response to U.S. engagement in Vietnam (a war which was never formally declared by the Senate)
A United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were discovered and released by Daniel Ellsberg, and first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of The New York Times in 1971. The papers revealed that the U.S. had secretly enlarged the scale of the Vietnam War with the bombings of nearby Cambodia and Laos, coastal raids on North Vietnam, and Marine Corps attacks, none of which were reported in the mainstream media. The Supreme Court upheld the right of the newspapers to publish the documents.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
series of meetings in the 70s, in which leaders of the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weapons
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world. President Ronald Reagan famously called on the Soviet Union to end its tyranny when he said, "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!..."
The breakup of the ____________ led directly to the end of the Cold War.
The major contributing factor that led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in the early 1990's was ________________.
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