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science flash cards catastrophic events book
Terms in this set (50)
an earthquake wave that follows the main shock of an earthquake
fragmented volcanic material with particles that measure less then 2mm in diameter
the ejection of volcanic materials into the atmosphere and the settling of these materials over a wide area of the surface of the earth.
an earthquake wave that travels through the body of the earth rather then on its surface. (see P-wave; S-wave see also surface wave)
describes objects that break easily when a force is applied to them
a large, steep-sides, circular or oval volcanic depression that forms when magma retreats or erupts from a shallow underground magma chamber; with no magma to support the ground above it, the overlying rock collapses and the caldera is formed
a small (less than 400 meters high) cone-shaped volcano made of broken rocks or blobs of hardened lava, called "cinders." tat accumulate around the volcanic vet
a volcano that forms from alternating eruptions of viscous lava and broken rocks. it is steep near the summit and flat towards the base
the earth's innermost layers, consisting of a liquid iron outer core and a solid iron-nickel inner core.
a small, bowl-shaped hole that forms when rock explodes from a volcano during an eruption.
the earth's outer layer: the coolest and least dense layer on the earth.
a deep, narrow depression in the seafloor.
describes objects that bend, stretch, or slow when a force is applied to them. (see also brittle)
vibrations in the earth causes by the sudden release of energy, usually as a result if the movement of the rocks along a fault
the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of an earthquake.
a fracture in bedrock, along which blocks of rock on opposite side of the fracture move.
the location where the rupture of an earthquake begins and energy is released.
a scientist who studies the history and structure of the earths as it is recorded in rocks.
a spherical model of the earth
a bulbous, steep-sided doe that forms at the top of a volcano when thick, relatively "cold" magma emerges from the volcanic opening
lava that flows quickly over the surface of the earth and covers a wide area.
the layer of the earths beneath the crust. it is about 2900 km thick, and it makes up about 83% of the earths interior.
a solid earths material that forms when any rocky type is changed by the earth;s high temperature and pressure
a zone of intense earthquake and volcanic activity that runs down the middle of the atlantic ocean floor
a mountainlike landform that develops when plates separate and new ocean lithosphere forms.
a naturally formed, inorganic solid composed of one of more elements
a powerful "river" of mud that forms when debris, such as form a volcanic eruption moves into a stream or river
natural catastrophic event
a powerful and often dramatic force of nature that changes the earth's surface and atmosphere; includes earthquakes, volcanoes, and intense storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes.
balloonlike mounds that form when lava erupts under water or empties into the ocean.
a large, mobile segment of the earths lithosphere
a place where pieces of broken lithosphere meet. boundary types include sliding (transform), colliding (convergent), and spreading (divergent).
a theory that the lithosphere is broken into segments, or plates, that "float" on the asthenosphere, and that interaction among these plates are associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity and form mid-ocean ridges, trenches, mountains, and chains of volcanic island
a primary (compressional) earthquake wave that travels through the body of the earth; so named because it is the first wave to reach a seismograph station during an earthquake.
ring of fire
a zone of intense earthquake and volcanic activity that encircles the pacific ocean basin; also called the Circum-Pracific belt.
a solid earths materials made of various minerals. igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary are three types of rock.
the process by which earths materials trasform from one rock type to another.
a solid earths materials composed of compacted and cemented sediments or of particles of various size.
a wave generated by earthquakes vibrations
the record made by seismograph; the paper on which earthquakes waves are recored.
an instrument that detects records, and measures the vibration produced by an earthquake.
a scientist who studies earthquakes
the study of earthquakes
a wide, broadly sloping volcano that forms from the runny lava. it is the largest of volcanoes.
an earthquake wave that travels on one or near the surface of the earth
a secondary earthquake wave; so named because it travels slower than a primary wave and is the second wave to reach the seismograph station after an earthquake. it travels through the body of the earth as a series of crest and troughs.
a localized zone of melting in the mantle that is fixed under plates
a solid earth material that forms when magma or lava cools and crystallizes on or below the earths surface
the tendency to resist flow; a property of liquids.
a landform, usually cone-shaped, produced by a collection of erupted materials around a vent, or opening, in the earths surface of the earth and though which gas and erupted material pass
a scientist who studies volcanoes and volcanic phenomena.
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