Which of the following is an impediment to change?
-Differences in functional orientation
What is the main reason behind companies losing their effectiveness?
-inability to change
Organizational inertia refers to the tendency of an organization to ________?
-resist change and maintain the status quo
Which of the following characteristics of organizational structure is most likely to increase the responsiveness of the organization to environmental changes?
-extensive use of mutual adjustment
Which of the following characteristics of organizational structure is most likely to resist organizational change?
-standardization of behavior through rules and procedures
Which of the following terms refers to a pattern of faulty decision-making that occurs in a team when members discount negative information in order to arrive at a unanimous agreement?
According to the force-field theory, when the two sets of opposing forces, force for change and resistance to change, are evenly balanced in an organization, the organization _______?
-is in a state of inertia
Which of the following statements is true regarding evolutionary change?
-Evolutionary change is gradual and incremental
Which of the following is true regarding revolutionary change?
-revolutionary change is broadly focused
Which of the following terms refers to a sequence of stages of growth and development through which organizations may pass?
-organizational life cycle
Which of the following statements is most likely to be true about generalists?
-generalists can often outcompete specialists when there is considerable uncertainty in the environment
______ concentrate their competences and skills to compete for resources in a single niche.
Which of the following theories proposes that an organization must gain legitimacy in the eyes of stakeholders in order to grow and survive?
Which of the following statements is true regarding programmed decision-making?
-programmed decision-making allows an organization to increase its efficiency and reduces the costs of making goods and services
Which of the following statements is true regarding nonprogrammed decision-making?
-Nonprogrammed decision-making forces managers to rely on judgment, intuition, and creativity to solve organizational problems.
Which of the following is an assumption of the Carnegie model of decision-making?
-decision making is affected by the preferences and values of decision makers
According to the ________ model of organizational decision-making, when selecting a set of new alternative courses of action, managers tend to choose those that are only slightly different from those used in the past, thus lessening their chances of making a mistake.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the incrementalist model?
-this model implies that managers rarely make major decisions that are radically different from decisions they have made before
Which of the following models of organizational decision-making, developed by Henry Mintzberg and his colleagues explains why and how managers make nonprogrammed decisions?
The _______ model of decision-making turns the decision-making process around and argues that managers are as likely to start decision-making from the "solution side" as from the "problem side." In other words, decision makers may propose solutions to problems that do not exist: they create a problem they can solve with solutions that are already available.
According to Anderson and Tushman, a technological discontinuity is a?
_______ technological change refers to a fundamental shift in technology that revolutionizes products or the way in which they are produced.
_______ technological change refers to the improvements that are continuously made to particular technologies over time.
Which of the following is true regarding an *incremental innovation?
-total quality management (TQM) is an example of an incremental innovation
_______ are entrepreneurs inside an organization who are responsible for the success or failure of a project.
A_______ organization is one in which innovation is going on at all hierarchical levels and across all functions and divisions
According to Pondy, all organizational conflict arises because _________.
-different organizational subunits have different goals.
According to Thompson's model of technology, which of the following types of task interdependence among subunits is most likely to lead to a conflict?
-sequential task interdependence
In which of the following situations is the potential for conflict is highest in an organization?
-Subunits in the organization are highly interdependent