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Developmental Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (10)
views of perceptual development (define each)
constructivist- we construct perceptions through our interactions with the world (nurture)
nativist- we are born with certain perpetual abilities, which become refined with experience
ecological- environment contains important perceptual information (affordances)
-we perceive these and they drive our actions
-some affordances are built in, others are learned
period of: (?)
examine impact of nature/nurture
period of most rapid development
studying perception: what are the three components?
what are some examples?
-orienting responses (heartrate deceleration, visual orientation, evoked potentials) coupled with habituation
high amplitude sucking
visual skills: acuity at birth (ability to perceive detail) = 20/600 - 20-1200 (40 times worse than adults)
what are three reasons for this?
1. retina has no fovea
2. poor accommodation
3. visual cortex is not fully developed (experience is necessary)
rules governing babies' visual preferences
Babies are attracted by: (3)
1. high contrast (contour)
3. patterns (moderately complex)
infant visual skills:
young infants have poor contrast sensitivity
this means what?
1. difficulty discerning patterns
2. explains moderate complexity preferences
3. the definition of complexity is based upon the infant's visual ability
face perception: describe the trends
before 6 months
after 6 months
can babies perceive basic aspects of the world? what 3 features do they have
2-3 months: preference for normal over scrambled faces- develop schema for faces
before 6 months: can discriminate between monkey faces as well as human faces
after 6 months: much better at discriminating between different human faces
auditory system more advanced at birth than visual system- why?
what is the hypothesis for infants and auditory perception
what are the 3 factors of this hypothesis
hypothesis: infants are predisposed to prefer language sounds
-appear to attend to human voice
-they make language discriminations at a very early age
auditory perception: the head turning test in infants tested what?
conclusions about language preferences (?)
how infants could discriminate between sounds (i.e. phonemes) based on their phonological rather than acoustic characteristics "ba" vs. "pa"
conclusions: language acquisition is also facilitated because speech uses sounds that infants can discriminate
-infants are born with the capability to make most of the important contrasts used in all languages
-modified by experience
what changes in vision from infancy to adulthood? (pupil and retina)
what are the implications for functioning?
pupil becomes smaller- limits the amount of light into the eye
takes longer to react
retina- dark adaptation, age correlated but non-normative changes: mascular degeneration -> loss of central retinal function
reading, night vision, dealing with sunlight, color discrimination, well being
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The principal of a new elementary school wants to give an IQ test to all students when they enter the school. The students will then be placed in groups of students with similar IQ scores. The principal assures the community that this plan is supported by scientific research and will improve education for all students, regardless of their ability. • Using evidence, present an argument for or against intelligence testing for children early in life. • Using evidence, present an argument for or against schools that "track" children based on intelligence test scores, separating high scorers from those with lower scores. • Using evidence, present an argument supporting the claim that environmental influences affect intelligence. • Using evidence, present an argument supporting the claim that labeling or tracking students could lead to stereotype threat.